Journal of Applied Science and Engineering

Published by Tamkang University Press


Impact Factor



Jinhui Kang This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1 and Enguang Yao1

1Zhumadian Technician College, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Zhumadian, 463000, China


Received: March 1, 2022
Accepted: August 16, 2022
Publication Date: September 29, 2022

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||  


AA2024 aluminium alloy has good resistance to fatigue crack growth, excellent damage tolerance, and high fracture toughness, so it is widely used in thin-walled structural parts. However, the excellent ductility of aluminum alloy and the weak rigidity of structural parts will lead to the questions of chip bonding, burr and machining deformation. To improve the drilling quality of the holes and the service life of the cutting tool and ensure the assembly quality and service life of the spacer frame of the passenger aircraft, the drilling experiments and thermo-mechanical coupling finite element simulation of AA2024 aluminum alloy were carried out. The effects of cutting speed and feed speed on thrust force, exit burr height, hole diameter and surface roughness were analyzed, and the empirical formulas were fitted by MATLAB. In addition, it was also found that there were three types of hole exit burr, micro exit burr or no exit burr, uniform exit burr, and exit burr cap. Finally, the drilling parameters were adjusted to vc=160 m/min and f=0.08 mm/r. Compared with the results of the original parameters, the thrust force was reduced by 31.99%, and the service life of the cutting tool was increased to 1.27 times. Moreover, the diameter accuracy and surface quality of the machined holes were also improved by 58.67% and 44.36%, respectively.

Keywords: AA2024 aluminium alloy, Drilling experiment, Finite element simulation, Exit burrs, Hole accuracy, Surface roughness


  1. [1] J. Starke E.A. and J. Staley, (1996) “Application of modern aluminum alloys to aircraft" Progress in Aerospace Sciences 32(2-3): 131–172. DOI: 10.1016/0376-0421(95)00004-6.
  2. [2] G. Mathers. The welding of aluminium and its alloys. Elsevier, 2002.
  3. [3] H. Liu, W. Zhu, H. Dong, and Y. Ke, (2017) “A helical milling and oval countersinking end-effector for aircraft assembly" Mechatronics 46: 101–114. DOI: 10.1016/j.mechatronics.2017.07.004.
  4. [4] A. Lacombe, Y. Landon, M. Paredes, C. Chirol, and A. Benaben, (2021) “Influence of the Hole Surface Integrity on the Fatigue Strength of an Aluminium Drilled Part" Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering: 34–40. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-70566-4_7.
  5. [5] Z. Yijin. “Research on automatic drilling riveting technology of aluminum-lithium alloy on largeaircraft”. In: cited By 0. 2020, 280–283. DOI: 10.1109/ICEDME50972.2020.00070.
  6. [6] K. Giasin, A. Hodzic, V. Phadnis, and S. Ayvar-Soberanis, (2016) “Assessment of cutting forces and hole quality in drilling Al2024 aluminium alloy: experimental and finite element study" The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 87(5): 2041–2061. DOI: 10.1007/s00170-016-8563-y.
  7. [7] M. Uddin, A. Basak, A. Pramanik, S. Singh, G. M. Krolczyk, and C. Prakash, (2018) “Evaluating Hole Quality in Drilling of Al 6061 Alloys" Materials 11(12): DOI: 10.3390/ma11122443.
  8. [8] G. Le Coz, M. Jrad, P. Laheurte, and D. Dudzinski, (2017) “Analysis of local cutting edge geometry on temperature distribution and surface integrity when dry drilling of aeronautical alloys" International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 93(58): 2037–2044. DOI: 10.1007/s00170-017-0671-9.
  9. [9] S. Xiang, (2017) “Influence analysis of processing parameters on swarf and hole features in drilling aluminum alloy lamella" Manufacturing Technology & Machine Tool 11: 132–136.
  10. [10] D. Yuan, S. Lei, W. Zhao, and Y. Yang, (2018) “Experimental study on the drilling burr height of aerospace aluminium alloy sheet" Manufacturing Technology & Machine Tool 6: 127–130.
  11. [11] A. Abdelhafeez, S. Soo, D. Aspinwall, A. Dowson, and D. Arnold. “Burr formation and hole quality when drilling titanium and aluminium alloys”. In: 37. cited By 60. 2015, 230–235. DOI: 10.1016/j.procir.2015.08.019.
  12. [12] C. Y. Seif, I. S. Hage, R.-M. S. Hage, and R. F. Hamade, (2022) “Exploiting the drill cutting lip to quantify the contributions of process parameters to cutting pressures - a response surface analysis" International Journal of Manufacturing Research 17(1): 95–125. DOI: 10.1504/IJMR.2022.121602.
  13. [13] L. Sun, H. Gao, B.Wang, Y. Bao, M.Wang, and S. Ma, (2020) “Mechanism of reduction of damage during helical milling of titanium/CFRP/aluminium stacks" International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 107(11-12): 4741–4753. DOI: 10.1007/s00170-020-05177-1.
  14. [14] A. Akhavan Farid, S. Sharif, and M. Idris, (2021) “Performance and wear mechanisms of uncoated, TiAlN, and AlTiN-coated carbide tools in high-speed drilling of Al-Si alloy" International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 113(9-10): 2671–2684. DOI: 10.1007/s00170-021-06663-w.
  15. [15] L. Sobotova, M. Badida, M. Moravec, A. Badidova, and A. Maslejova, (2020) “New findings in the field of thermal drilling of aluminum alloys" Materials 13(21): 1–17. DOI: 10.3390/ma13215007.
  16. [16] I. A. Popan, A. I. Popan, A. Carean, D. Fratila, and A. Trif. “Study on chip fragmentation and hole quality in drilling of aluminium 6061 alloy with high pressure internal cooling”. In: MATEC Web of Conferences. 299. EDP Sciences. 2019, 04014.
  17. [17] A. Sifa, D. Suwandi, T. Endramawan, and A. Rachman. “Performance of fan chips on drilling aluminium process”. In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 1098. 6. IOP Publishing. 2021,062081.
  18. [18] A. Sandeep Reddy, S. Ajay Kumar, and T. Jagadesh, (2020) “The Influence of graphite, MOS2 and Blasocut lubricant on hole and chip geometry during peck drilling of aerospace alloy" Materials Today: Proceedings 24: 690–697. DOI: 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.04.323.
  19. [19] M. Aamir, M. Tolouei-Rad, K. Giasin, and A. Vafadar, (2020) “Machinability of Al2024, Al6061, and Al5083 alloys using multi-hole simultaneous drilling approach" Journal of Materials Research and Technology 9(5):10991–11002.
  20. [20] M. Aamir, K. Giasin, M. Tolouei-Rad, and A. Vafadar, (2020) “A review: drilling performance and hole quality of aluminium alloys for aerospace applications" Journal of Materials Research and Technology 9(6): 12484–12500. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2020.09.003.
  21. [21] F. Veiga, A. Suárez, A. Del Val, M. Penalva, and L. de Lacalle, (2020) “Evaluation on advantages of low frequency assisted drilling (LFAD) aluminium alloy Al7075" International Journal of Mechatronics and Manufacturing Systems 13(3): 230–246. DOI: 10.1504/IJMMS.2020.111283.
  22. [22] L. Wei and D. Wang, (2020) “Effect of ultrasoundassisted vibration on Ti-6Al-4V/Al2024-T351 laminated material processing with geometric tools" International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 106(1-2): 219–232. DOI: 10.1007/s00170-019-04637-7.
  23. [23] B. Ozcelik and E. Bagci, (2006) “Experimental and numerical studies on the determination of twist drill temperature in dry drilling: A new approach" Materials and Design 27(10): 920–927. DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2005.03.008.
  24. [24] W. Zhang and P. K. Zhang, (2011) “Axial Vibration Drilling Machining Simulation of 2A12 based on Deform" Equipment Manufacturing Technology 1: 20–217.
  25. [25] B. Li, S. Liu, X. Tian, F. Gao, and Z. Zhang, (2012) “Drilling simulation on carbon fiber reinforced plastics and aluminum laminated composite" Advanced Materials Research 490-495: 3281–3285. DOI: 10.4028/
  26. [26] M. Montoya, M. Calamaz, D. Gehin, and F. Girot, (2014) “Numerical simulation of workpiece thermal field in drilling CFRP/aluminum alloy" Key Engineering Materials 611-612: 1226–1235. DOI: 10.4028/
  27. [27] M. Daoud, J. Chatelain, and A. Bouzid, (2015) “Effect of rake angle on Johnson-Cook material constants and their impact on cutting process parameters of Al2024-T3 alloy machining simulation" International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 81(9-12): 1987–1997. DOI: 10.1007/s00170-015-7179-y.
  28. [28] P. Pawar, R. Ballav, and A. Kumar, (2016) “Finite element method broach tool drilling analysis using explicit dynamics ansys" International Journal of Modern Manufacturing Technologies 8(2): 54–60.
  29. [29] D. Wu, S. Huang, Y. Gao, Y. Dong, and X. Ma, (2017) “Predictive model for the interlayer burr height during drilling of stacked aluminum plates" Qinghua Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Tsinghua University 57(6): 591–596 and 603. DOI: 10.16511/j.cnki.qhdxxb.2017.26.024.
  30. [30] S. Dehghan, M. Ismail, M. Ariffin, B. Baharudin, and S. Sulaiman, (2017) “Numerical simulation on friction drilling of aluminum alloy: Numerische Simulation des Reibbohrens von Aluminiumlegierungen" Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik 48(3): 241–248. DOI: 10.1002/mawe.201600768.
  31. [31] H. Paktinat and S. Amini, (2017) “Ultrasonic assistance in drilling: FEM analysis and experimental approaches" International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 92(5-8): 2653–2665. DOI: 10.1007/s00170-017-0285-2.
  32. [32] L. H. Ma, (2017) “Finite element analysis of 3D drilling of 7055 aluminium alloy based on deform-3d" Ordnance Material Science and Engineering 40(5): 46–50.
  33. [33] S. T. Huang, P. Zhang, and H. T. Wang, (2018) “Finite Element Analysis on Thrust Force of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic and Aluminum Stacks Composite Ma-terial Drilling" Tool Engineering 52(5): 63–68.
  34. [34] S. Huang, H. T.Wang, and P. Zhang, (2019) “Finite element analysis on drilling defects of carbon fiber reinforced plastic and aluminum stacks" Journal of Materials Science and Engineering 37: 493–500.
  35. [35] N. Ya¸sar, (2019) “Thrust force modelling and surface roughness optimization in drilling of AA-7075: FEM and GRA" Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 33(10): 4771–4781. DOI: 10.1007/s12206- 019-0918-5.
  36. [36] R. Sreenivasulu, S. Rao, et al. “Some Investigations on Drilling of Aluminium Alloy from FEA-Based Simulation Using DEFORM-3D”. In: Advances in Simulation, Product Design and Development. Springer, 2020, 3–15.
  37. [37] S. Reddy and S. Chalamalasetti, (2021) “Optimization of drilling parameters during machining of Al-Mg-Si alloys by Taguchi method coupled with grey relational analysis and validated by FEA based deform - 3D" Strojnicky Casopis 71(2): 221–238. DOI: 10.2478/scjme-2021-0032.
  38. [38] A. Tzotzis, C. García-Hernández, J.-L. Huertas-Talón, and P. Kyratsis, (2020) “FEM based mathematical modelling of thrust force during drilling of Al7075-T6" Mechanics and Industry 21(4): DOI: 10.1051/meca/2020046.
  39. [39] A. Tzotzis, A. Markopoulos, N. Karkalos, D. Tzetzis, and P. Kyratsis. “FEM based investigation on thrust force and torque during Al7075-T6 drilling”. In: 1037. 1. cited By 2. 2021. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/1037/1/012009.
  40. [40] I. Boldyrev and D. Topolov, (2021) “Twist Drilling FEM Simulation for Thrust Force and Torque Prediction" Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering: 946–952. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-54817-9_109.
  41. [41] G. Johnson and W. Cook, (1985) “Fracture characteristics of three metals subjected to various strains, strain rates, temperatures and pressures" Engineering Fracture Mechanics 21(1): 31–48. DOI: 10 . 1016/0013 -7944(85)90052-9.
  42. [42] S. Kouadri, K. Necib, S. Atlati, B. Haddag, and M. Nouari, (2013) “Quantification of the chip segmentation in metal machining: Application to machining the aeronautical aluminium alloy AA2024-T351 with cemented carbide tools WC-Co" International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 64: 102–113. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2012.08.006.