Journal of Applied Science and Engineering

Published by Tamkang University Press


Impact Factor



Adnin Awalludin1, Nazirah Mingu1, Abu Zahrim Yaser2, Hasmadi Mamat3, Khairul Azfar Kamaruzaman4, Zuhair Jamain1, Md Lutfor Rahman1, Mohd Hafiz Abd Majid1, and Mohd Sani Sarjadi This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1

1Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
2Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
3Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
4Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.


Received: December 6, 2020
Accepted: June 16, 2021
Publication Date: October 11, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||  


In this research, the influence of different solvents (1.0 M KOH and 1.0 M NaOH) and different drying methods (freeze dryer and oven) towards the chemical and physical properties of refined carrageenan by using kappaphycus alvarezii collected from Semporna, Sabah were determined. The physical characterizations involved were viscosity, surface morphology and functional group while, the chemical characterization was sulphate content. The result showed that the carrageenan yield were 12% (carrageenan extracted using 1.0 M KOH) and 18% (carrageenan extracted using 1.0 M NaOH) respectively for oven as a drying method. The carrageenan yield using freeze dryer were 10% (carrageenan extracted using 1.0 M KOH) and 12% (carrageenan extracted using 1.0 M NaOH). The functional groups identification for sulphate ester, anhydro-galactose and galactose were analyzed by using FT-IR. The surface morphology of carrageenan was analyzed by using SEM for different drying method and carrageenan extracted using 1.0 M KOH (Oven as drying method) showed a smooth surface compared with other sample. The sulphate content was analyzed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The concentration of sulphate were 22.5 mg/L (carrageenan extracted using 1.0MKOH) and 69.4mg/L (carrageenan extracted using 1.0 M NaOH) for oven as drying method. The result for freeze dryer method were 33.8 mg/L (carrageenan extracted using KOH) and 44.9 mg/L (carrageenan extracted using NaOH), respectively.

Keywords: Extraction; refined kappa-carrageenan;Kappaphycus alvarezii


  1. [1] A. Bono, S. Anisuzzaman, and O. W. Ding, (2014) “Effect of process conditions on the gel viscosity and gel strength of semi-refined carrageenan (SRC) produced from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii)" Journal of King Saud University-Engineering Sciences 26(1): 3–9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jksues.2012.06.001.
  2. [2] J. Venkatesan, B. Lowe, S. Anil, P. Manivasagan, A. A. A. Kheraif, K.-H. Kang, and S.-K. Kim, (2015) “Seaweed polysaccharides and their potential biomedical applications" Starch-Stärke 67(5-6): 381–390. DOI: 10.1002/STAR.201400127.
  3. [3] J. Zhao, C. Sun, H. Li, X. Dong, and X. Zhang, (2020) “Studies on the physicochemical properties, gelling behavior and drug release performance of agar/k-carrageenan mixed hydrogels" International journal of biological macromolecules 154: 878–887. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.03.087.
  4. [4] V. T. Bui, B. T. Nguyen, T. Nicolai, and F. Renou, (2019) “Mixed iota and kappa carrageenan gels in the presence of both calcium and potassium ions" Carbohydrate polymers 223: 115107. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.115107.
  5. [5] T. G. Polat, O. Duman, and S. Tunc, (2020) “Preparation and characterization of environmentally friendly agar/k-carrageenan/montmorillonite nanocomposite hydrogels" Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 602: 124987. DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2020.124987.
  6. [6] D. Valderrama, J. Cai, N. Hishamunda, and N. Ridler, (2013) “Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming":
  7. [7] B. Arifin, A. Bono, A. Prabakar, N. Siambun, and R. Mubin. “Extraction, clarification and physical characteristics of carrageenan from seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii)”. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah and Kota Kinabalu. 2003.
  8. [8] D. J. McHugh, (2003) “A guide to the seaweed industry FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 441" Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome:
  9. [9] N. Rhein-Knudsen, M. T. Ale, and A. S. Meyer, (2015) “Seaweed hydrocolloid production: an update on enzyme assisted extraction and modification technologies" Marine drugs 13(6): 3340–3359. DOI: 10.3390/md13063340.
  10. [10] J. Necas and L. Bartosikova, (2013) “Carrageenan: a review." Veterinarni medicina 58(4): DOI: 10.17221/6758-VETMED.
  11. [11] A. I. Usov, (2011) “Polysaccharides of the red algae" Advances in carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry 65: 115–217. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-385520-6.00004-2.
  12. [12] T. Barbeyron, G. Michel, P. Potin, B. Henrissat, and B. Kloareg, (2000) “i-Carrageenases constitute a novel family of glycoside hydrolases, unrelated to that of k-carrageenases" Journal of Biological Chemistry 275(45): 35499–35505. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M003404200.
  13. [13] V. L. Campo, D. F. Kawano, D. B. da Silva Jr, and I. Carvalho, (2009) “Carrageenans: Biological properties, chemical modifications and structural analysis–A review" Carbohydrate polymers 77(2): 167–180. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2009.01.020.
  14. [14] E. M. Vilén, L. C. Lundqvist, D. Jouanneau,W. Helbert, and C. Sandstrom, (2010) “NMR study on hydroxy protons of k-and k/m-hybrid carrageenan oligosaccharides: experimental evidence of hydrogen bonding and chemical exchange interactions in k/m oligosaccharides" Biomacromolecules 11(12): 3487–3494. DOI: 10.1021/bm100994x.
  15. [15] D. Mondal, A. Ghosh, K. Prasad, S. Singh, N. Bhatt, S. Zodape, J. P. Chaudhary, J. Chaudhari, P. B. Chatterjee, A. Seth, et al., (2015) “Elimination of gibberellin from Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed sap foliar spray enhances corn stover production without compromising the grain yield advantage" Plant Growth Regulation 75(3): 657–666. DOI: 10.1007/s10725-014-9967-z.
  16. [16] O. Normah and I. Nazarifah, (2003) “Production of semi-refined carrageenan from locally available red seaweed, Eucheuma cottonii on a laboratory scale" Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science 31(2): 207.
  17. [17] D. Valderrama, J. Cai, N. Hishamunda, N. Ridler, I. C. Neish, A. Q. Hurtado, F. E. Msuya, M. Krishnan, R. Narayanakumar, M. Kronen, et al., (2015) “The economics of Kappaphycus seaweed cultivation in developing countries: a comparative analysis of farming systems" Aquaculture Economics & Management 19(2): 251–277. DOI: 10.1080/13657305.2015.1024348.
  18. [18] M. A. Ilias, A. Ismail, and R. Othman, (2017) “Analysis of carrageenan yield and gel strength of Kappaphycus species in Semporna Sabah" J. Trop. Plant Physiol 9:14–23.
  19. [19] F. Ahmad, M. R. Sulaiman, W. Saimon, C. Yee, and P. Matanjun. “Proximate compositions and total phenolic contents of selected edible seaweed from semporna, Sabah, Malaysia”. In: 2012.
  20. [20] E. N. Dewi, R. Ibrahim, and S. Suharto, (2015) “Morphological structure characteristic and quality of semi refined carrageenan processed by different drying methods" Procedia Environmental Sciences 23: 116–122. DOI: 10.1016/J.PROENV.2015.01.018.



69th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Enter your name and email below to receive latest published articles in Journal of Applied Science and Engineering.