Adnin Awalludin1, Nazirah Mingu1, Abu Zahrim Yaser2, Hasmadi Mamat3, Khairul Azfar Kamaruzaman4, Zuhair Jamain1, Md Lutfor Rahman1, Mohd Hafiz Abd Majid1, and Mohd Sani Sarjadi This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1

1Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
2Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
3Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
4Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.


Received: December 6, 2020
Accepted: June 16, 2021
Publication Date: October 11, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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In this research, the influence of different solvents (1.0 M KOH and 1.0 M NaOH) and different drying methods (freeze dryer and oven) towards the chemical and physical properties of refined carrageenan by using kappaphycus alvarezii collected from Semporna, Sabah were determined. The physical characterizations involved were viscosity, surface morphology and functional group while, the chemical characterization was sulphate content. The result showed that the carrageenan yield were 12% (carrageenan extracted using 1.0 M KOH) and 18% (carrageenan extracted using 1.0 M NaOH) respectively for oven as a drying method. The carrageenan yield using freeze dryer were 10% (carrageenan extracted using 1.0 M KOH) and 12% (carrageenan extracted using 1.0 M NaOH). The functional groups identification for sulphate ester, anhydro-galactose and galactose were analyzed by using FT-IR. The surface morphology of carrageenan was analyzed by using SEM for different drying method and carrageenan extracted using 1.0 M KOH (Oven as drying method) showed a smooth surface compared with other sample. The sulphate content was analyzed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The concentration of sulphate were 22.5 mg/L (carrageenan extracted using 1.0MKOH) and 69.4mg/L (carrageenan extracted using 1.0 M NaOH) for oven as drying method. The result for freeze dryer method were 33.8 mg/L (carrageenan extracted using KOH) and 44.9 mg/L (carrageenan extracted using NaOH), respectively.

Keywords: Extraction; refined kappa-carrageenan;Kappaphycus alvarezii


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