Journal of Applied Science and Engineering

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Jian ZhangThis email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

College of Civil Engineering, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473061, Henan, China



Received: December 23, 2023
Accepted: April 24, 2024
Publication Date: June 10, 2024

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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Undrained shear strength is a fundamental property of soil that characterizes its ability to resist deformation under load without allowing water drainage time. This property is crucial in geotechnical engineering, as it influences the stability of structures and the behavior of foundations. Traditional and laboratory methods for calculating undrained shear strength involve direct shear tests, unconfined compression tests, and vane shear tests. These methods are time-consuming and labor-intensive, limiting their practicality, especially when dealing with large datasets or complex soil compositions. Machine learning (ML)-based models offer a promising alternative by predicting undrained shear strength with greater efficiency and accuracy. In this investigation, Gaussian Process Regression is employed as a core technique to address the challenges of developing an ML model. Additionally, the study incorporates two different meta-heuristic optimization methods, specifically Artificial Rabbits Optimization and Runge-Kutta optimization, to achieve the best possible results. The evaluations undeniably validate the GPRK model’s unmistakable superiority. It achieves an impressive maximum R2 value of 99.3% in the training phase of prediction, showcasing exceptional explanatory capability and exhibiting notably low MSE and RMSE values of 65.727 and 95.242, respectively. This model indicates minimal prediction deviation when contrasted with the GPR and GPAR models.


Keywords: Undrained Shear Strength; Gaussian Process Regression; Artificial Rabbits Optimization; Runge-Kutta optimization

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