Journal of Applied Science and Engineering

Published by Tamkang University Press


Impact Factor



Annie Purwani1,2This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Wahyudi Sutopo1This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Muhammad Hisjam1, and Anugrah Widiyanto3

1Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia

2Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Ringroad Selatan, Kragilan, Tamanan, Banguntapan, Bantul, Yogyakarta 55191, Indonesia

3National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), BJ Habibie Bld. 6th fl., M.H. Thamrin Street No. 7, Central Jakarta 10340, Indonesia



Received: November 1, 2023
Accepted: April 29, 2024
Publication Date: June 12, 2024

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||  

Several strategies and attempts have been made to accelerate the transition from internal combustion engines (ICE) to electric vehicles (EVs). This acceleration also has implications for the increasing swap battery waste on electric motorcycles. End-of-life (EoL) swap batteries on electric motorcycles have reached the end of their useful life in large quantities and potentially endangering human health, ecosystems, and resource availability. The management of the EoL swap battery should involve electric motorcycle manufacturers, swap battery manufacturers, swap station managers, EoL battery collectors, and battery recycling managers. Determining the recycling classifications before EoL (mentioned as the EoL cut-off) is, thus the key to sustainability. The best cut-off index was determined by finding the best trade-off among treatment recycling classification, swap battery performance, material circulation, and the potential environmental impacts. The approached to finding the best trade-off was using response surface methodology (RSM). Repair, remanufacture, or reuse are alternatives to EoL management maintenance Swap battery performance is based on the state of health (SoH) of the battery. Material circularity was measured using material flow analysis. Potential environmental impacts were gauged using life cycle assessment (LCA). The RSM results revealed that the optimal cut-off index occurred before EoL when the swap battery’s State of Health (SoH) was 81.76%. The recommended recycling classification is repair treatment, as it reduces environmental impact and promotes significant material circularity

Keywords: life cycle assessment; swap battery; recycling classification; end-of-life (EoL)

  1. [1] Y. Hua, S. Zhou, Y. Huang, X. Liu, H. Ling, X. Zhou, C. Zhang, and S. Yang, (2020) “Sustainable value chain of retired lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles" Jour nal of Power Sources 478: 228753. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2020.228753.
  2. [2] M. Sriariyanun, M. P. Gundupalli, V. Phakeenuya, Y.-s. Cheng, and P. Venkatachalam, (2023) “Biorefin ery Approaches For Production Of Cellulosic Ethanol Fuel Using Recombinant Engineered Microorganisms" Jour nal ofApplied Science and Engineering 27: 1985–2005.
  3. [3] C. Lin, A. Tang, and W. Wang. “A Review of SOH Estimation Methods in Lithium-ion Batteries for Elec tric Vehicle Applications”. In: 75. Elsevier B.V., 2015, 1920–1925. DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.199.
  4. [4] M.Alfaro-Algaba and F. J. Ramirez, (2020) “Techno economic and environmental disassembly planning of lithium-ion electric vehicle battery packs for remanufac turing" Resources, Conservation and Recycling 154: 104461. DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.104461.
  5. [5] M. Kaya, (2022) “State-of-the-art lithium-ion battery recycling technologies" Circular Economy 1: 100015. DOI: 10.1016/j.cec.2022.100015.
  6. [6] V. Noudeng, N. V. Quan, and T. D. Xuan, (2022) “A Future Perspective on Waste Management of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles in Lao PDR: Current Status and Challenges" International Journal of Environ mental Research and Public Health 19: 1–22. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph192316169.
  7. [7] M.O’Keefe, A. Brooker, C. Johnson, M. Mendelsohn, J. Neubauer, and A. Pesaran. “Battery ownership model: A tool for evaluating the economics of electri f ied vehicles and related infrastructure”. In: 2011.
  8. [8] E. F. Aqidawati, W. Sutopo, E. Pujiyanto, M. His jam, and F. Fahma, (2022) “Technology Readiness and Economic Benefits of Swappable Battery Standard : Its Implication for Open Innovation" Journal of Open In novation : Technology, Market and Complexity 8: 1–41.
  9. [9] J. Porzio and C. D. Scown, (2021) “Life-cycle assess ment considerations for batteries and battery materials" Advanced Energy Materials 11(33): 2100771.
  10. [10] Y. Hua, X. Liu, S. Zhou, Y. Huang, H. Ling, and S. Yang, (2021) “Toward sustainable reuse of retired lithium ion batteries from electric vehicles" Resources, Conser vation and Recycling 168: 105249.
  11. [11] V.V.ViswanathanandM.Kintner-Meyer,(2011)“Sec ond use of transportation batteries: Maximizing the value of batteries for transportation and grid services" IEEE Transactions on vehicular technology 60(7): 2963–2970.
  12. [12] A. Ziegler, D. Oeser, T. Hein, D. Montesinos-Miracle, and A. Ackva, (2020) “Run to failure: aging of commer cial battery cells beyond their end of life" Energies 13(8): 1858.
  13. [13] M. Arrinda, M. Oyarbide, H. Macicior, E. Muxika, H. Popp, M. Jahn, B. Ganev, and I. Cendoya, (2021) “Application dependent end-of-life threshold definition methodology for batteries in electric vehicles" Batteries 7(1): 12.
  14. [14] A. Pandey, S. Patnaik, and S. Pati. “Available tech nologies for remanufacturing, repurposing, and re cycling lithium-ion batteries: An introduction”. In: Nano Technology for Battery Recycling, Remanufactur ing, and Reusing. Elsevier, 2022, 33–51.
  15. [15] I. 14040, (2009) “Environmental assessment- Life cy cle assessment- Principles and framework" Internation Standard Organisation 1997: 1–20.
  16. [16] L. C. Casals, B. A. García, and L. V. Cremades, (2017) “Electric vehicle battery reuse: Preparing for a second life" Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management 10(2): 266–285.
  17. [17] X. Hu,S. E. Li, Z. Jia, and B. Egardt, (2014) “Enhanced sample entropy-based health management of Li-ion battery for electrified vehicles" Energy 64: 953–960.
  18. [18] Y. Xing, E. W. Ma, K. L. Tsui, and M. Pecht, (2011) “Battery management systems in electric and hybrid vehi cles" Energies 4(11): 1840–1857.
  19. [19] L. C. Casals, B. A. García, F. Aguesse, and A. Iturron dobeitia, (2017) “Second life of electric vehicle batteries: relation between materials degradation and environmen tal impact" The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 22: 82–93.
  20. [20] S. Amarakoon, J. Smith, and B. Segal. Application of life-cycle assessment to nanoscale technology: Lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles. Tech. rep. 2013.
  21. [21] A. P. Hutama, E. Apriliyani, M. Hakam, and C. S. Yudha, “Evaluation of Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NMC) 111 and Lithium Cobalt Oxide (LCO) products" Energy Storage Technology and Applications 2(2): 32–40.
  22. [22] M. Huijbregts, Z. Steinmann, P. Elshout, G. Stam, F. Verones, M. Vieira, A. Hollander, M. Zijp, and R. van Zelm, (2017) “ReCiPe 2016 v1. 1 (RIVM Report 2016-0104)" NationalInstitute for Public Healthand the Environment. https://www. presustainability. com/download/Report_ReCiPe_2017. pdf:
  23. [23] G. Majeau-Bettez, T. R. Hawkins, and A. H. Strøm man, (2011) “Life cycle environmental assessment of lithium-ion and nickel metal hydride batteries for plug in hybrid and battery electric vehicles" Environmental science & technology 45(10): 4548–4554.
  24. [24] Y. Tao, C. D. Rahn, L. A. Archer, and F. You, (2021) “Second life and recycling: Energy and environmental sus tainability perspectives for high-performance lithium-ion batteries" Science advances 7(45): eabi7633.
  25. [25] B. E. Murdock, K. E. Toghill, and N. Tapia-Ruiz, (2021) “A perspective on the sustainability of cathode ma terials used in lithium-ion batteries" Advanced Energy Materials 11(39): 2102028.
  26. [26] M.S. Koroma, D. Costa, M. Philippot, G. Cardellini, M. S. Hosen, T. Coosemans, and M. Messagie, (2022) “Life cycle assessment of battery electric vehicles: Implica tions of future electricity mix and different battery end-of life management" Science of the Total Environment 831: 154859.
  27. [27] A.Purwani,W.Sutopo,M.Hisjam,andA.Widiyanto, (2023) “A Reverse Logistics Framework of Swap Battery for Sustainable Supply Chain : A Preliminary Research": 94–109. DOI: 10.46254/au01.20220025.
  28. [28] M. Farooque, A. Zhang, M. Thürer, T. Qu, and D. Huisingh, (2019) “Circular supply chain management: Adefinition and structured literature review" Journal of cleaner production 228: 882–900.