Journal of Applied Science and Engineering

Published by Tamkang University Press


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Baktygul Makhanbetova1, Viktor Shevko1This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., and Dosmurat Aitkulov2

1Department of Technologies of Silicate Materials and Metallurgy, Higher School of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Mukhtar Auezov South Kazakhstan University, 5 Tauke Khan Ave., Shymkent, 160012, Kazakhstan

2National Center on Complex Processing of Mineral Raw Materials of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 67 Zhandosov str., Almaty, 050036, Kazakhstan



Received: November 17, 2023
Accepted: February 16, 2024
Publication Date: April 4, 2024

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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The article examines the results of joint processing of a mixture of the Shalkiya deposit sulfide and oxidized Zn − Pb ores (4.7% of ZnS, 1.7% of PbS, 0.3% of ZnO, 0.1 of PbO ) by the electrothermal method using magnetite as an iron-containing component and an oxidizer for zinc and lead sulfides. The computer thermodynamic modeling with use of the HSC-10 software package, based on the minimum Gibbs energy principle, allowed us to establish that the formation of iron silicide FeSi2 and gaseous zinc from a ZnO and ZnS mixture in the presence of Fe3O4 and C is possible at a temperature of > 1463.1, and FeSi2 and gaseous lead at a temperature of > 1457.3. Zinc, containing in the ore mixture, passes almost completely (≥ 99%) at a temperature of more than 1600C, and up to 88.6% of lead - only at 1900C. Using the second-order rotatable designs (Box-Hunter plans) and combined optimization, it was found that, under equilibrium conditions, FS45 grade ferrosilicon (41.0 − 43.6% of Si) can be produced from the sulfide and oxidized ores’ mixture in the presence of 18 − 22% of Fe3O4 at 1768 − 1900C. Electric melting a mixture of the ores, magnetite concentrate and coke was accompanied by intense foaming, associated with the saturation of the melt with gaseous CO, SO2, Zn and Pb. The foaming was noticeably reduced when iron containing in the magnetite was partially replaced by iron containing in steel shavings.


Keywords: zinc ore, oxide ore, magnetite, carbon-thermal reduction, thermodynamic model, electric smelting.

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