Journal of Applied Science and Engineering

Published by Tamkang University Press


Impact Factor



Abdulla Omarov1, Askar Zhussupbekov1This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Victor Kaliakin2, Der-Wen Chang3, and Dhanya, J. S.1

1Department of Civil Engineering, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Munaitpassov Street, Astana, Kazakhstan, 010008

2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, 301 P. S. DuPont Hall, Newark, DE 19716 USA

3Department of Civil Engineering, Tamkang University, 151 Yin Chuan Road, Tamsui District, New Taipei City, Taiwan 251



Received: November 3, 2023
Accepted: February 4, 2024
Publication Date: April 4, 2024

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||  

This paper presents the results of four full-scale static pile load tests that were performed at a site in Astana, Kazakhstan that is underlain by problematic soils. In each test, the bored pile measured 1000 mm in diameter and had a length of 31.5 m. Two of the four static pile load tests were of the standard “top-down” variety. One of these tests was performed in accordance with ASTM D 1143-07; the other was performed in accordance with GOST 5686.2020. The remaining two static pile load tests were bi-directional tests that used an Osterberg (“O”) cell. For both types of static pile load tests the results were in good agreement with each other. Comparing the top-down static pile load test results, the ratio of the load in the former to the load in the latter was 1.1 at fixed settlements based on the standard methods tested. Four empirical methods were next applied to the results of these tests and the resulting ultimate capacities compared against the results of the aforementioned four static pile load tests.

Keywords: Static pile load test; Bi-directional static pile load test; Pile capacity; O-cell

  1. [1] M. Olgun, Y. Yenginar, and A. Hanati, (2017) “Interpreting Load-Settlement Curves of Pile Foundations by Graphical Methods" Eurasian Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture 1: 1–10.
  2. [2] , (2013) “Standard Test Methods for Deep Foundations Under Static Axial Compressive Load" ASTM D1143/D1143M-07 ICS Code: 93.020: 15. DOI: https: //
  3. [3] P. 1. ASTM International West Conshohocken, (2018) “Standard Test Methods for Deep Foundations Under BiDirectional static Axial Compressive Load" ASTM Standard D8169/D8169M: 13. DOI: DOI:10.1520/D8169_ D8169M-18.
  4. [4] S. Scientific Research Design, Design, T. I. of Foundations, and U. S. named after. N.M. Gersevanov (NIIOSP named after N.M. Gersevanov) - Joint-stock company "Scientific Research Center "Construction" (JSC "SRC "Construction") (Dokipedia: Interstate standard GOST 5686-2020 "Soils. Methods of field testing of piles", (2020) “Soils, Field testing methods for piles" GOST 5686. 2020: 65.
  5. [5] R. C. Joshi and H. D. Sharma, (1987) “Prediction of Ultimate Pile Capacity from Load Tests on Bored and Belled, Expanded Base Compacted and Driven Piles" Proceedings, International Symposium of Prediction and Performance in Geotechnical Engineering: 135–144.
  6. [6] L. C. Reese and M. W. O’Neill, (1988) “Drilled Shafts: Construction Procedures and Design Methods" U.S. Department of Transportation, FHWA-HI-88-042, Dallas, Texas:
  7. [7] C. L. Crowther, (1988) “Load Testing of Deep Foundation" John Wiley & Sons:
  8. [8] A. Hirany and F. Kulhawy, (1988) “Conduct and Interpretation of Load Tests on Drilled Shaft Foundations: Detailed Guidelines" Report EL-5915:
  9. [9] C. Vander Veen, (1953) “A Review of Wind Speed and Wind Power Forecasting with Deep Neural Networks" Proceedings, 3nd International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering 2: 84–90.
  10. [10] B. Fellenius, (1980) “The Analysis of Results from Routine pile Load Tests" Ground Engineering: 19–31.
  11. [11] B. .-. H. J., (1963) “Hyperbolic Stress-Strain Response: Cohesive Soils": Cohesive Soils" Discussion, American Society of Civil Engineering" Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division 89: 241–242.
  12. [12] E. E. DeBeer, (1968) “Proefondervindlijke bijdrage tot de studie van het grensdraag vermogen van zand onder funderingen op staal" Tijdshift der Openbar Verken van Belgie 4: 6.
  13. [13] F. Chin, (1970) “Estimation of the Ultimate of Piles not Carried to Failure" Proceedings 2nd Southeast Asian Conference on Soil Engineering: 81–90.
  14. [14] F. Fuller and H. Hoy, (1970) “A Review of Wind Speed and Wind Power Forecasting with Deep Neural Networks" Pile Load Tests Including Quick-load Test Method Conventional Methods and Interpretations: 78–86.
  15. [15] L. FM and R. DJ, (2013) “Full scale rapid uplift tests on transmission tower footings" Proceedings of the 18th international conference on soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering: 2791–2794.
  16. [16] M. Davisson, (1972) “High Capacity Piles" Proceedings, Lecture Series Innovations in Foundation Construction: 52.
  17. [17] E. E. De Beer and M. Wallays, (1972) “Franki Piles with Overexpanded Bases" La Technique des Travaux 333: 44.
  18. [18] B. Mazurkiewicz, (1972) “Test Loading of Piles According to Polish Regulations" Royal Swdish Academy of Engineeing Sciences Commission on Pile Research 35: 20.
  19. [19] H. Butler and H. Hoy, (2021) “User’s Manual for the Texas Quick Load Method for Foundation Load Testing" FHWA FHWAIP-77-8: 59.
  20. [20] L. Décourt, (1999) “Behaviour of Foundations Under Working Load Conditions" Proc. of the 11th PanAmerican Conf. on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 4: 453–488.
  21. [21] Y. Lastiasih and I. Sidi, (2014) “Reliability of Estimation Pile Load Capacity Methods" Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences 46: 1–16. DOI: 10.5614/j.eng.technol.sci.2014.46.1.1.
  22. [22] K. Petek, R. Mitchell, G. Buechel, and D. Goodyear, (2012) “Full Scale Instrumented Pile Load Test for the Port Mann Bridge" Proceedings GeoCongress 2012: 362–375. DOI: 10.1061/9780784412084.0027.
  23. [23] J. Osterberg, (1998) “The Osterberg load test method for bored and driven piles: the first ten years" Proceedings of the 7th International Conference and Exhibition on Piling and Deep Foundations: 1–11. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.117766.
  24. [24] A. Omarov, A. Zhussupbekov, and V. Kaliakin, (2023) “Investigations of piles by bidirectional static loading test in Astana soils" E3S Web of Conferences 457: 02057. DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/202345702057.
  25. [25] A. Zhussupbekov, R. Lukpanov, and A. Omarov, (2016) “Bi-Directional Static Load Testing" Geotechnical Special Publication 265: 35–42. DOI: 10.1061/9780784480083.005.
  26. [26] A. Zhussupbekov and A. Omarov, (2016) “Modern Advances in the Field Geotechnical Testing" Procedia Engineering 165: 88–95. DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.11.739.
  27. [27] A. Zhussupbekov and A. Omarov, (2016) “Geotechnical and construction considerations of pile foundations in problematical soils" Proceedings of the 8th Asian Young Geotechnical Engineers Conference: 27–32.
  28. [28] A. Zhusupbekov, R. Lukpanov, and A. Omarov, (2016) “Experience in Applying Pile Static Testing Methods at the Expo 2017 Construction Site" Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering 53: 251–256. DOI: 10.1007/s11204-016-9394-4.
  29. [29] A. Zhussupbekov, D.-W. Chang, Y. Utepov, K. Borgekova, and A. Omarov, (2019) “Estimating the Driven Pile Capacities for COF Project in West Kazakhstan" Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering 56: 121–127. DOI: 10.1007/s11204-019-09579-6.
  30. [30] F. Castelli, (2006) “Nonlinear evaluation of pile groups lateral deflection" Proc., Int. Conf. on Piling and Deep Found. 127–134.
  31. [31] R. G., R. B., V. C., and D. S. L., (2003) “A contribution to the analysis of Osterberg’s cell load test" Proceedings of 4th international geotechnical seminar on deep foundations on bored and auger piles: 331–338.
  32. [32] H. Seol and S. Jeong, (2009) “Load-settlement behavior of rock-socketed drilled shafts using Osterberg-cell tests" Comput. Geotech. 36: 1134–1141. DOI: https: //



60th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Enter your name and email below to receive latest published articles in Journal of Applied Science and Engineering.