Nur Afiqah Basitah Kamaruddin1, Wan AzlinaWan Abdul Karim Ghani This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1,2, Mohamad Rezi Abdul Hamid1, Azil Bahari Alias3, and Abdul Halim Shamsudin4

1Sustainable Process Engineering Research Centre (SPERC), Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Institute of Plantation Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Technology MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
4Institute of Sustainable Energy, Universiti Tenaga Malaysia, 43300 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia


Received: December 28, 2021
Accepted: March 21, 2022
Publication Date: April 29, 2022

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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Biomass solid waste (BSW) generation in Malaysia is rapidly increasing as a result of nation’s industrialization, urbanization, and population growth. Thermochemical conversion of BSW to produce energy is not straightforward due to fuel’s high moisture content, low heating value, and poor grindability. Accessing different combinatorial scheme of BSW may help to mitigate above-mentioned issues while maintaining attractively high energy outputs. In this work, calorific values and ultimate analyses of a wide variety of BSW reported in literature were compiled. Based on the collected data, two empirical correlations to predict high heating value (HHV) of BSW were developed using a multiple regression method. The developed correlations were (i) HHV = 908.37C + 2942.94H + 4439.73S + 518.92O − 63558.52(municipal solid waste) and (ii) HHV = 382.62C − 368.16H + 2788.24S − 37.83O + 926.26(biomass/biochar) where, C, H, O, N, and S represent biomass content in a form of elemental carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur, respectively. The accuracies of the correlations were verified by comparing the predicted values with those experimentally determined. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to analyze BSW combustion behavior and retrieve important combustion parameters. The best-fit correlations obtained in this work had R2 values of 0.98 (MAPE of 3.2%) and 0.92 (MAPE of 7.1%) for municipal solid waste and biomass/biochar samples, respectively. Moreover, the correlations were fairly accurate in predicting HHV of different BSW combination with prediction error of less than 15%. The correlations developed in this work could be instrumental for a precise determination of different combination of solid biomass.

Keywords: Biomass solid waste, calorific values, bomb calorimeter, power generation


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