Muhammad Israr Khan This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1 and ShuhongWang1

1School of Resources and Civil Engineering, Northeastern University, 110819, China


Received: February 18, 2022
Accepted: May 2, 2022
Publication Date: May 28, 2022

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||  


A detailed study on dynamic deformation analysis of the upstream and downstream slope of the rockfill dam at the Nauseri Dam site is performed to address dynamic stability of the slope under the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE), 475-year and Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE). The dynamic deformation analysis in this computation package includes Newmark deformation analysis, Makdisiseed deformation analysis and Bray-Travasarou deviatoric slope displacement analysis. The site response analysis is carried out using GeoStudio 2012 QUAKE/W to predict motions propagating through slopes from the underlying bedrock. In this study, the deterministic methods developed by Newmark and Makdisi-Seed and the probabilistic method proposed by Bray and Travasarou were used to evaluate the dynamic deformation of the upstream and downstream slope of the rockfill dam. It is concluded that the estimated displacements of the upstream and downstream slope by two deterministic methods, such as Newmark and Makdisi-Seed while one probabilistic method that is Bray and Travasarou used are consistent and give better results compare to other methods.

Keywords: Rocks; Slopes; Displacements; Numerical modelling


  1. [1] Z.-Y. Chen and N. Morgenstern, (1983) “Extensions to the generalized method of slices for stability analysis" Canadian Geotechnical Journal 20(1): 104–119. DOI: 10.1139/t83-010.
  2. [2] A. M. Yanmaz and M. R. Be¸ser, (2005) “On the reliability–based safety analysis of the Porsuk dam" Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences 29(5): 309–320.
  3. [3] J. M. Duncan, (2000) “Factors of safety and reliability in geotechnical engineering" Journal of geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering 126(4): 307–316. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2000)126:4(307).
  4. [4] M. I. Khan and S. Wang, (2021) “Method for predicting factor of safety and seepage due to variation in dam width and other parameters" Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Geotechnical Engineering: 1–9. DOI: 10.1680/jgeen.21.00042.
  5. [5] M. I. Khan and S.Wang, (2021) “Slope stability analysis to correlate shear strength with slope angle and shear stress by considering saturated and unsaturated seismic conditions" Applied Sciences 11(10): 4568. DOI: 10.3390/app11104568.
  6. [6] S. Wang and M. I. Khan, (2021) “Developing Correlations for Advance Prediction of Slope Factor of Safety Using Linear Regression Analysis–Karachi Landslide as a Case Study" Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 30(6): 5849–5862. DOI: 10.15244/pjoes/135607.
  7. [7] M. I. Khan and S. Wang, (2021) “Slope Stability Analysis to Develop Correlations between Different Soil Parameters and Factor of Safety Using Regression Analysis." Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 30(5): DOI: 10.15244/pjoes/131203.
  8. [8] J. D. Bray and T. Travasarou, (2007) “Simplified procedure for estimating earthquake-induced deviatoric slope displacements" Journal of geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering 133(4): 381–392. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2007)133:4(381).
  9. [9] The Development of Time Histories for the Dam Site prepared for Pakistan Water & Power Development Authority. NJC, (2012a). NJC. 2012.
  10. [10] Stability Analysis of Sedimentation Basin & U/S of Intake Slopes. NJC, (2012b). NJC. 2012.
  11. [11] Stability Analysis of Sedimentation Basin & U/S of Intake Slopes. NJC, (2012c). NJC. 2012.
  12. [12] S. L. Kramer. Geotechnical earthquake engineering. Pearson Education India, 1996.
  13. [13] H. B. Seed, (1970) “Soil moduli and damping factors for dynamic response analysis" EERC:
  14. [14] Y.-c. Oh, H.-s. Jeong, Y.-k. Lee, and H. Shon. “Safety evaluation of rock-fill dam by seismic (MASW) and resistivity methods”. In: 16th EEGS Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems. European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers. 2003, cp–190. DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609-pdb.190.sur09.
  15. [15] J. I. S. Idriss I. M. User’s Manual for SHAKE91, A computer Program for Conducting Equivalent Linear Seismic Response Analyses of Horizontally Layered Soil Deposits Program Modified based on the Original SHAKE Program Published in December 1972 by Schnabel, Lysmer and Seed. 1992.
  16. [16] N. M. Newmark, (1965) “Effects of earthquakes on dams and embankments" Geotechnique 15(2): 139–160. DOI: 10.1680/geot.1965.15.2.139.
  17. [17] F. I. Makdisi and H. B. Seed, (1978) “Simplified procedure for estimating dam and embankment earthquake induced deformations" Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division 104(7): 849–867.
  18. [18] J.-S. Lin and R. V. Whitman, (1983) “Decoupling approximation to the evaluation of earthquake-induced plastic slip in earth dams" Earthquake engineering & structural dynamics 11(5): 667–678. DOI: 10.1002/eqe.4290110506.
  19. [19] N. Ambraseys, J. Menu, and M, (1988) “Earthquake induced ground displacements" Earthquake engineering & structural dynamics 16(7): 985–1006. DOI: 10.1002/eqe.4290160704.
  20. [20] R. W. Jibson, (1993) “Predicting earthquake-induced landslide displacements using Newmark’s sliding block analysis" Transportation research record 1411: 9–17.
  21. [21] S. L. Kramer and M. W. Smith, (1997) “Modified Newmark model for seismic displacements of compliant slopes" Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 123(7): 635–644. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(1997)123:7(635).
  22. [22] H. B. Seed and G. R. Martin, (1966) “The seismic coefficient in earth dam design" Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division 92(3): 25–58. DOI: 10.1061/JSFEAQ.0000871.
  23. [23] M. I. Khan, S. Wang, et al. “Analysis of earth fill hydraulic dam with varying crest length and permeability to develop correlations”. In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 304. 5. IOP Publishing. 2019, 052120. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/304/5/052120.
  24. [24] M. I. Khan and S.Wang. “Seismic Analysis of a Soil Slope to Develop Correlations for Factor of Safety Considering Horizontal and Vertical Seismic Coefficients”. In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 495. 1. IOP Publishing. 2020, 012036. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/495/1/012036.
  25. [25] M. I. Khan and S. Wang. “Comparing the various slope stability methods to find the optimum method for calculating factor of slope safety”. In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 480. 1. IOP Publishing. 2020, 012003. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/480/1/012003.
  26. [26] M. I. Khan and S.Wang. “Comparative study of slope stability of a highway constructed in hilly area using limit equilibrium and finite element methods”. In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 514. 2. IOP Publishing. 2020, 022023. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/514/2/022023.
  27. [27] M. I. Khan and S. Wang. “Comparative study of seismic and non-seismic analysis of a soil slope to develop correlations for factor of safety considering horizontal and vertical seismic coefficients”. In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 529.1. IOP Publishing. 2020, 012013. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/529/1/012013.
  28. [28] M. I. Khan and S. Wang, (2022) “Correlating groundwater level and shear strength: Kotkai Pakistan landslide as case study" Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Forensic Engineering 175(1): 21–27. DOI: 10.1680/jfoen.21.00035.


42nd percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Enter your name and email below to receive latest published articles in Journal of Applied Science and Engineering.