Viddi Mardiansyah1 and Riri Fitri Sari This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1

1Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia


Received: November 28, 2021
Accepted: February 21, 2022
Publication Date: April 5, 2022

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||  


Medical data record from the patient is private data that is very confidential and secure. Securing medical data records using blockchain can prevent unauthorized parties from seeing or changing the data. However, it has a drawback in creating a block known as a mining process that takes a long time and uses enormous resources. We proposed a lightweight blockchain framework for medical record data integrity in using resources that reduce the computational. Based on the work, to build a lightweight blockchain application, the Python programming language is used. The Flask micro web server is applied in illustrating the blockchain data, while the MIT App Inventor creates an Android application to read data from IoT devices. The IoT Implementation of this work has successfully been tested to retrieve data and store it in a blockchain framework. The lightweight blockchain discussed in this paper is a mining technique using leading-zero as a difficulty level factor while ensuring data integrity and security when creating a block. We compared the block-time generation required to make a block on this system with the block-time generation on the existing network such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Dogelite, and Litecoin. From the difficulty level of one to five, the experiment results, the block-time obtained from 0.0012677 seconds to 34.5919193 seconds. Overall for a low level of difficulty has a faster duration than the existing network. Only at the fifth difficulty level appears to have a longer processing time than Ethereum, but still quicker.

Keywords: Lightweight Blockchain, Internet of Things, Sleep Apnea, Medical Record, Leading-Zeroes


  1. [1] M. Mettler. “Blockchain technology in healthcare: The revolution starts here”. In: 2016 IEEE 18th International Conference on e-Health Networking, Applications and Services (Healthcom), 1–3. DOI:
  2. [2] G. Hasenstab. Three Ways Blockchain Is Improving Our Lives Now. 2019. URL: - is - improving- our- lives - now/?sh=201ba3894572.
  3. [3] A. Sharma, Sarishma, R. Tomar, N. Chilamkurti, and B.-G. Kim, (2020) “Blockchain Based Smart Contracts for Internet of Medical Things in e-Healthcare" Electronics 9(10): DOI: https : //
  4. [4] A. Ekblaw, A. Azaria, J. D. Halamka, and A. Lippman. A Case Study for Blockchain in Healthcare:“MedRec” prototype for electronic health records and medical research data — MIT Media Lab. 2016. URL: https: //
  5. [5] A. Azaria, A. Ekblaw, T. Vieira, and A. Lippman. “MedRec: Using Blockchain for Medical Data Access and Permission Management”. In: 2016 2nd International Conference on Open and Big Data (OBD), 25–30. DOI:
  6. [6] J. Zhang and M. Wu, (2020) “Blockchain Use in IoT for Privacy-Preserving Anti-Pandemic Home Quarantine" Electronics 9(10): DOI:
  7. [7] A. Dorri, S. S. Kanhere, R. Jurdak, and P. Gauravaram. “Blockchain for IoT security and privacy: The case study of a smart home”. In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops), 618–623. DOI: https: //
  8. [8] Y. Zhang and J.Wen, (2017) “The IoT electric business model: Using blockchain technology for the internet of things" Peer-To-Peer Networking and Applications 10(4): 983–994. DOI:
  9. [9] H. Tan, P. Kim, and I. Chung, (2020) “Practical Homomorphic Authentication in Cloud-Assisted VANETs with Blockchain-Based Healthcare Monitoring for Pandemic Control" Electronics 9(10): DOI:
  10. [10] V. Astarita, V. P. Giofrè, G. Mirabelli, and V. Solina, (2020) “A Review of Blockchain-Based Systems in Transportation" Information 11(1): DOI:
  11. [11] V. Elagin, A. Spirkina, M. Buinevich, and A. Vladyko, (2020) “Technological Aspects of Blockchain Application for Vehicle-to-Network" Information 11(10): DOI: https: //
  12. [12] S. Huckle, R. Bhattacharya, M. White, and N. Beloff, (2016) “Internet of Things, Blockchain and Shared Economy Applications" Procedia Computer Science 98: 461–466. DOI:
  13. [13] P. Hurich, (2016) “The Virtual is Real: An Argument for Characterizing Bitcoins as Private Property" Banking & Finance Law Review 31(3): 573–583.
  14. [14] X. Xu, C. Pautasso, L. Zhu, V. Gramoli, A. Ponomarev, A. B. Tran, and S. Chen. “The Blockchain as a Software Connector”. In: 2016 13th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA), 182–191.DOI:
  15. [15] W. Cai, Z. Wang, J. B. Ernst, Z. Hong, C. Feng, and V. C. M. Leung, (2018) “Decentralized Applications: The Blockchain-Empowered Software System" IEEE Access 6: 53019–53033. DOI: https: //
  16. [16] N. Kshetri and J. Voas, (2018) “Blockchain-Enabled EVoting" IEEE Software 35(4): 95–99. DOI:
  17. [17] C.-k. Chang, (2020) “Blockchain for Integrated Nuclear Power Plants Management System" Information 11(6): DOI:
  18. [18] S. Nakamoto, (2009) “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System":
  19. [19] S. Tuli, R. Mahmud, S. Tuli, and R. Buyya, (2019) “FogBus: A Blockchain-based Lightweight Framework for Edge and Fog Computing" Journal of Systems and Software 154: 22–36. DOI:
  20. [20] J. Zhang, N. Xue, and X. Huang, (2016) “A Secure System For Pervasive Social Network-Based Healthcare" IEEE Access 4: 9239–9250. DOI:
  21. [21] N. Jia, R.Wang, M. Li, Y. Guan, and F. Zhou, (2021) “Towards the Concurrent Optimization of the Server: A Case Study on Sport Health Simulation" Complexity 2021: 5587170. DOI:
  22. [22] T. Bizimungu, D. Harelimana, and J. Marie Ntaganda, “A Client-Server and Web-Based Graphical User Interface Design for the Mathematical Model of Cardiovascular-Respiratory System" Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing 2021: 5581937. DOI: https: //
  23. [23] L. Ibraimi, M. Asim, and M. Petkovi´c. “Secure management of personal health records by applying attribute-based encryption”. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Wearable, Micro, and Nano Technologies for Personalized Health, 71–74. DOI: https: //
  24. [24] M. A. Sarwar, T. Bashir, O. Shahzad, and A. Abbas, (2019) “Cloud-Based Architecture to Implement Electronic Health Record (EHR) System in Pakistan" IT Professional 21(3): 49–54. DOI:
  25. [25] X. Yan and X. Ren, “5G Edge Computing Enabled Directional Data Collection for Medical Community Electronic Health Records" Journal of Healthcare Engineering 2021: 5598077. DOI:
  26. [26] D. D. L. F. Simon Fernandez-Vazquez Rafael Rosillo and P. Priore, (2019) “Blockchain in FinTech: A Mapping Study" Sustainability MDPI 11(22): DOI: https: //
  27. [27] E. A. A. Lukman Adewale Ajao James Agajo and L. Karngong, (2019) “Crypto Hash Algorithm-Based Blockchain Technology for Managing Decentralized Ledger Database in Oil and Gas Industry" Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal - MDPI 2(3): 300–325
  28. [28] C. Arnold, D. Kiel, and K.-I. Voigt, (2016) “How The Industrial Internet of Things Changes Business Models in Different Manufacturing Industries" International Journal of Innovation Management 20(08): 1640015. DOI:
  29. [29] J. Bonneau, A. Miller, J. Clark, A. Narayanan, J. A. Kroll, and E. W. Felten. “SoK: Research Perspectives and Challenges for Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies”. In: 2015 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 104–121. DOI:
  30. [30] L. Cocco and M. Marchesi, (2016) “Modeling and Simulation of the Economics of Mining in the Bitcoin Market" PLOS ONE 11: DOI: https: //
  31. [31] S. Javaheri, F. Barbe, F. Campos-Rodriguez, J. A. Dempsey, R. Khayat, S. Javaheri, A. Malhotra, M. A. Martinez-Garcia, R. Mehra, A. I. Pack, V. Y. Polotsky, S. Redline, and V. K. Somers, (2017) “Sleep Apnea" Journal of the American College of Cardiology 69(7): 841. DOI:
  32. [32] W. Su, G. Chen, D. Ma, J. Zeng, F. Yan, X. Lin, Z. Xu, S. Yang, Z. Li, and C. Liu, “Higher Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) and Oxygen Desaturation Index (ODI)Were Independently Associated with Increased Risks of Hypertension in Patients with T2DM: A Cross-Sectional Study" International Journal of Hypertension 2021: 8887944. DOI: https: //
  33. [33] T. Saunamäki, E. Huupponen, J. Loponen, and S.-L. Himanen, (2017) “CPAP Treatment Partly Normalizes Sleep Spindle Features in Obstructive Sleep Apnea" Sleep Disorders 2017: 2962479. DOI:
  34. [34] AASM, (2008) “Obstructive Sleep Apnea" 2019(December 13):
  35. [35] S. Shankar, S. S. Gupta, G. Rojas-Marte, S. Demir, A. Saxena, C. Obiagwu, N. Aggarwal, A. K. Rai, S. Kamholz, V. Shetty, and Y. Kupfer, (2019) “Electrocardiographic Associations Seen with Obstructive Sleep Apnea" Sleep Disorders 2019: 9704785. DOI:
  36. [36] A. Manoni, F. Loreti, V. Radicioni, D. Pellegrino, L. Della Torre, A. Gumiero, D. Halicki, P. Palange, and F. Irrera, (2020) “A New Wearable System for Home Sleep Apnea Testing, Screening, and Classification" Sensors 20(24): DOI:
  37. [37] C. Esteban-Amarilla, S. Martin-Bote, A. Jurado-Garcia, A. Palomares-Muriana, N. Feu-Collado, and B. Jurado-Gamez, “Usefulness of Home Overnight Pulse Oximetry in Patients with Suspected Sleep-Disordered Breathing" Canadian Respiratory Journal 2020: 1891285. DOI:
  38. [38] S. Shah, K. Majmudar, A. Stein, N. Gupta, S. Suppes, M. Karamanis, J. Capannari, S. Sethi, and C. Patte, (2020) “Novel Use of Home Pulse Oximetry Monitoring in COVID-19 Patients Discharged From the Emergency Department Identifies Need for Hospitalization" Academic Emergency Medicine 27(8): 681–692. DOI:
  39. [39] A. Von Chong, M. Terosiet, A. Histace, and O. Romain, (2019) “Towards a novel single-LED pulse oximeter based on a multispectral sensor for IoT applications" Microelectronics Journal 88: 128–136. DOI: https: //
  40. [40] MIT and Google. MIT App Inventor | Explore MIT App Inventor. 2010. URL:
  41. [41] B. Xie and H. Abelson. “Skill progression in MIT app inventor”. In: 2016 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC), 213–217. DOI:
  42. [42] P. Vimalachandran, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, B. Heyward, and F. Whittaker. “Ensuring Data Integrity in Electronic Health Records: A Quality Health Care Implication”. In: International Conference on Orange Technologies. DOI:
  43. [43] A. K. Rattan, (2018) “Data Integrity: History, Issues, and Remediation of Issues" PDA J Pharm Sci Technol 72(2): 105–116. DOI:
  44. [44] WHO, (2014) “Annex 5 Guidance on good data and record management practices":
  45. [45] X. Liang, J. Zhao, S. Shetty, J. Liu, and D. Li. “Integrating blockchain for data sharing and collaboration in mobile healthcare applications”. In: 2017 IEEE 28th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 1–5. DOI:
  46. [46] S.-W. Noh, Y. Park, C. Sur, S.-U. Shin, and K.-H. Rhee, (2017) “Blockchain-Based User-Centric Records Management System" International Journal of Control and Automation 10: 133–144. DOI:
  47. [47] X. Zheng, R. R. Mukkamala, R. Vatrapu, and J. Ordieres-Mere. “Blockchain-based Personal Health Data Sharing System Using Cloud Storage”. In: 2018 IEEE 20th International Conference on e-Health Networking, Applications and Services (Healthcom), 1–6. DOI:
  48. [48] K. Fan, S. Wang, Y. Ren, H. Li, and Y. Yang, (2018) “MedBlock: Efficient and Secure Medical Data Sharing Via Blockchain" Journal of Medical Systems 42(8): 1–11. DOI:
  49. [49] V. Patel, (2018) “A framework for secure and decentralized sharing of medical imaging data via blockchain consensus" Health Informatics Journal 25(4): 1398–1411. DOI:
  50. [50] L. Zhu, Y. Wu, K. Gai, and K.-K. R. Choo, (2019) “Controllable and trustworthy blockchain-based cloud data management" Future Generation Computer Systems 91: 527–535. DOI:
  51. [51] L. Ismail, H. Materwala, and S. Zeadally, (2019) “Lightweight Blockchain for Healthcare" IEEE Access 7: 149935–149951. DOI:
  52. [52] J. Fu, N. Wang, and Y. Cai, (2020) “Sensor Research; New Sensor Research Study Findings Recently Were Reported by Researchers at Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (Privacy-Preserving in Healthcare Blockchain Systems Based on Lightweight Message Sharing)" Health & MedicineWeek: 3596.
  53. [53] J. Chiu and T. V. Koeppl, (2019) “Blockchain-Based Settlement for Asset Trading" The Review of Financial Studies 32(5): 1716–1753. DOI:
  54. [54] Y. Aoki, K. Otsuki, T. Kaneko, R. Banno, and K. Shudo. “SimBlock: A Blockchain Network Simulator”. In: IEEE INFOCOM 2019 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 325–329. DOI: https ://
  55. [55] U. W. Chohan, (2017) “A History of Dogecoin": DOI:


42nd percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Enter your name and email below to receive latest published articles in Journal of Applied Science and Engineering.