Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia
Received: February 2, 2023 Accepted: June 30, 2023 Publication Date: September 20, 2023
Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.
Damage to the leading edge in the form of dents due to bird strikes causes a decrease in the airfoil performance. Therefore, the current study provides a numerical analysis of the aerodynamic characteristics of the original NACA 2412 airfoil and the dent airfoil with depth variation. Several airfoils were compared for their lift and drag coefficients at an angle of attack of 0◦ to 6◦ . The free air flow velocity was kept constant at the Reynolds number of 3.1 × 106 . Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used, employing the k-ω SST turbulence model to obtain accurate calculations on the airfoil surface. The simulation results revealed that the dented NACA 2412 airfoil lift coefficient (CL) decreased while the drag coefficient (CD) increased, where the value varied with changes in the angle of attack and depth of the dent.
Keywords: Bird strike, Lift, Drag, CFD
 R. A. Dolbeer, (2013) “The history of wildlife strikes and management at airports" Wildlife in Airport Environments: Preventing Animal-Aircraft Collisions Through Science-Based Management: 1–7.
 E. C. Cleary and R. A. Dolbeer, (2005) “Wildlife Hazard Management at Airports" Federal Aviation Administration: 362.
 2. .-. 2. W. S. A. (IBIS), (2017) “Summary of Wildlife Strikes Reported To the Icao Bird Strike Information System (Ibis) for the Years 2008 - 2015" Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 58: 7250–7.
 M. S. Tatlıer and T. Baran, (2020) “Structural and CFD analysis of an airfoil subjected to bird strike" European Journal of Mechanics, B/Fluids 84: 478–486. DOI: 10.1016/j.euromechflu.2020.07.012.
 I. C. Metz, J. Ellerbroek, T. Mühlhausen, D. Kügler, and J. M. Hoekstra, (2020) “The bird strike challenge" Aerospace 7: 1–20. DOI: 10.3390/aerospace7030026.
 A. F. El-Sayed. Bird strike in aviation : statistics, analysis and management. Ed. by A. F. El-Sayed. first. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2019. DOI: 10.1002/9781119529835.
 B. Yadav, (2017) “Aircraft Collisions and Bird Strikes in Nepal Between 1946-2016: A Case Study" Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering 06: DOI: 10.4172/2168-9792.1000203.
 J. Juraˇcka, J. Chlebek, and V. Hodaˇn, (2022) “Bird strike as a threat to aviation safety" Transportation Research Procedia 59: 281–291. DOI: 10.1016/j.trpro.2021.11.120.
 A. Riccio, R. Cristiano, S. Saputo, and A. Sellitto, (2018) “Numerical methodologies for simulating birdstrike on composite wings" Composite Structures 202: 590–602. DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2018.03.018.
 J. Liu, Y. Li, X. Yu, Z. Tang, X. Gao, J. Lv, and Z. Zhang, (2017) “A novel design for reinforcing the aircraft tail leading edge structure against bird strike" International Journal of Impact Engineering 105: 89–101. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2016.12.017.
 S. Long, X. Mu, Y. Liu, H. Wang, X. Zhang, and X. Yao, (2021) “Failure modeling of composite wing leading edge under bird strike" Composite Structures 255: 113005. DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.113005.
 M. May, S. Arnold-Keifer, V. Landersheim, D. Laveuve, C. C. Asins, and M. Imbert, (2021) “Bird strike resistance of a CFRP morphing leading edge" Composites Part C: Open Access 4: DOI: 10.1016/j.jcomc.2021.100115.
 M. S. TATLIER, (2020) “A Numerical Investigation of a Bird Strike on the Structure of an Aircraft Wing Leading Edge" European Mechanical Science 4: 37–40. DOI: 10.26701/ems.622830.
 Y. Wang, X. Zheng, R. Hu, and P. Wang, (2016) “Effects of leading edge defect on the aerodynamic and flow characteristics of an s809 Airfoil" PLoS ONE 11: 1–17. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163443.
 S. P. Venkatesan, V. P. Kumar, M. S. Kumar, and S. Kumar, (2018) “Computational analysis of aerodynamic characteristics of dimple airfoil NACA 2412 at various angles of attack" International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology 9: 41–49.
 D. A. Kumar and V. Girija, (2018) “A Review on BirdStrike Analysis on Leading Edge of an Aircraft Wing Structure using a SPH Formulation": 330–334.
 S. S. Rajan, M. Santhoshkumar, N. Lakshmanan, S. N. Pillai, and M. Paramasivam, (2009) “CFD analysis and wind tunnel experiment on a typical launch vehicle model" Tamkang Journal of Science and Engineering 12: 223–229.
 W. M. Elnaggar, Z. H. Chen, and Z. G. Huang, (2016) “Numerical investigations of body tail projectile" Journal of Applied Science and Engineering 19: 163–168. DOI: 10.6180/jase.2016.19.2.06.
 J. S. Lin, C. H. Chang, and N. C. Shang, (2006) “Computational simulation and comparison of the effect of different surroundings on wind loads on domed structures" Tamkang Journal of Science and Engineering 9: 291– 297.
 S. M. Zakir and Y. Li, (2012) “Dynamic response of the leading edge wing under soft body impact" International Journal of Crashworthiness 17: 357–376. DOI: 10.1080/13588265.2012.661239.
 L. E. Stone, P. W. Wypych, D. B. Hastie, and S. Zigan, (2016) “CFD-DEM modelling of powder flows and dust generation mechanisms - A review" ICBMH 2016 - 12th International Conference on Bulk Materials Storage, Handling and Transportation, Proceedings: 417–426.
 Y. Wang, R. Hu, and X. Zheng, (2017) “Aerodynamic Analysis of an Airfoil With Leading Edge Pitting Erosion" Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME 139: 1–11. DOI: 10.1115/1.4037380.
 D. W. A. Perdana and M. Effendy, (2021) “Studi Numerik dan Eksperimen Aerodinamika Airfoil NACA 24112" Creative Research in Engineering 1: 1. DOI: 10.30595/cerie.v1i1.9194.
 Z. Wu, Z. Xie, P. Wang, and W. Ding, (2020) “Aerodynamic drag performance analysis of different types of highspeed train pantograph fairing" Journal of Applied Science and Engineering 23: 509–519. DOI: 10.6180/jase.202009_23(3).0015.
 F. R. Menter, M. Kuntz, and R. Langtry, (2003) “Ten Years of Industrial Experience with the SST Turbulence Model Turbulence heat and mass transfer" Cfd.Spbstu.Ru 4: 625–632.