Journal of Applied Science and Engineering

Published by Tamkang University Press


Impact Factor



Napatsawan Ngamdi1, Jaruwan Sriwilai2, Therdkiat Trongwongsa2, and Taweechai Ouypornkochagorn1This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand
2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand


Received: January 23, 2023
Accepted: April 15, 2023
Publication Date: May 3, 2023

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||  

Cervical abnormality screening can reduce the risk of getting cancer. Screening methods mostly depend on laboratory investigation which requires equipment, time, and pathologist experience. Electrical bioimpedance has been reported that can be used to identify the presence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) since the conductivity of CIN could be 4-5 times higher than that of normal tissue. In this study, an electrode probe having 8 round electrodes is developed with 1.5 mm-electrode distance. Tissue conductivity can be directly estimated with the probe based on the four-point measurement method, and the image of conductivity distribution can be reconstructed at the same time. The simulation result showed that when tissue thickness was thicker than 4 mm, the commonly-used formula for estimating conductivity is applicable regardless of the electrode shape, but a correction factor was needed with a value up to 1.2 when the thickness was down to 1 mm. The localization performance of the reconstruction images was investigated in a phantom experiment – on a piece of sausage with a burning spot on the surface. Five current excitations were performed from 2 kHz to 125 kHz. The burning surface could be located with a localization error of 0.23 mm with a frequency higher than 2 kHz. However, artifacts were still observable in the images at the boundary region of the electrode array. Thus, increasing the number of electrodes and increasing the probe tip area or decreasing the electrode diameter are still recommended. 

Keywords: Electrode probe; Cervical precancerous tissues; Reconstruction; Tissue conductivity

  1. [1] H. Sung, J. Ferlay, R. L. Siegel, M. Laversanne, I. Soerjomataram, A. Jemal, and F. Bray, (2021) “Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries" CA: a cancer journal for clinicians 71(3): 209–249. DOI: 10.3322/caac.21660.
  2. [2] N. Shanmugapriya and P. Devika, (2017) “Comparing the effectiveness of liquid based cytology with conventional PAP smear and colposcopy in screening for cervical cancer and it’s correlation with histopathological examination:
    a prospective study" International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology 6(12): 5336–5341.
  3. [3] M. Karimi-Zarchi, F. Peighmbari, N. Karimi, M. Rohi, and Z. Chiti, (2013) “A comparison of 3 ways of conventional pap smear, liquid-based cytology and colposcopy vs cervical biopsy for early diagnosis of premalignant lesions or cervical cancer in women with abnormal conventional pap test" International journal of biomedical science: IJBS 9(4): 205.
  4. [4] L. Das, S. Das, and J. Chatterjee, (2015) “Electrical bioimpedance analysis: A new method in cervical cancer screening" Journal of medical engineering 2015: DOI:10.1155/2015/636075.
  5. [5] S. Abdul, B. Brown, P. Milnes, and J. Tidy, (2005) “A clinical study of the use of impedance spectroscopy in the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)" Gynecologic Oncology 99(3 Suppl 1): S64–S66. DOI: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2005.07.046.
  6. [6] B. H. Brown, J. A. Tidy, K. Boston, A. D. Blackett, R. H. Smallwood, and F. Sharp, (2000) “Relation between tissue structure and imposed electrical current flow in cervical neoplasia" The Lancet 355(9207): 892–895. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(99)09095-9.
  7. [7] A. Sillaparaya and T. Ouypornkochagorn. “Planar Electrode Configurations of Electrode Plates for the Localization of Cervical Abnormality based on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT)–A Simulation Study”. In: 2021 11th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Technology. 2021, 27–33. DOI: 10.1145/3460238.3460243.
  8. [8] S. Ousub, P. Chumjai, A. Sillaparaya, and T. Ouypornkochagorn. “A Simulation Study to Locate Cervical Abnormality based on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), using a Planar Nine-Electrode
    Probe”. In: 2021 11th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Technology. 2021, 1–6. DOI: 10.1145/3460238.3460239.
  9. [9] S. Jankhaboun, W. Janrit, N. Ngamdi, T. Trongwongsa, and T. Ouypornkochagorn. “Planar Electrode Probe Patterns for Cervical Precancerous Screening using Electrical Impedance Tomography”. In: 2022 International Electrical Engineering Congress (iEECON). IEEE. 2022, 1–4. DOI: 10.1109/iEECON53204.2022.9741605.
  10. [10] T. Zhang, Y. Jeong, D. Park, and T. Oh, (2021) “Performance Evaluation of Multiple Electrodes Based Electrical Impedance Spectroscopic Probe for Screening of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia" Electronics 10(16): 1933. DOI: 10.3390/electronics10161933.
  11. [11] D. K. Schroder. Semiconductor material and device characterization. John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
  12. [12] L. B. Valdes, (1954) “Resistivity measurements on germanium for transistors" Proceedings of the IRE 42(2): 420–427. DOI: 10.1109/JRPROC.1954.274680.
  13. [13] V. Tomicic and R. Cornejo, (2019) “Lung monitoring with electrical impedance tomography: technical considerations and clinical applications" Journal of thoracic disease 11(7): 3122. DOI: 10.21037/jtd.2019.06.27.
  14. [14] T. Ouypornkochagorn, N. Terzija, P. Wright, J. L. Davidson, N. Polydorides, and H. McCann, (2022) “Scalp-mounted electrical impedance tomography of cerebral hemodynamics" IEEE sensors journal 22(5): 4569–4580. DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2022.3145587.
  15. [15] T. Faes, H. Van Der Meij, J. De Munck, and R. Heethaar, (1999) “The electric resistivity of human tissues (100 Hz-10 MHz): a meta-analysis of review studies" Physiological measurement 20(4): R1. DOI: 10.1088/0967-3334/20/4/201.



69th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Enter your name and email below to receive latest published articles in Journal of Applied Science and Engineering.