Journal of Applied Science and Engineering

Published by Tamkang University Press


Impact Factor



Truong Ngoc HungThis email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Department of I.T., FPT University - Quy Nhon A.I Campus, Nhon Binh ward, Quy Nhon city, Binh Dinh Province, Viet Nam


Received: October 6, 2022
Accepted: April 18, 2023
Publication Date: June 13, 2023

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||  

Voltage quality of a distribution network system is one of the most important issues. To evaluate the voltage in real-time, this paper proposes a method of voltage estimation in distribution network systems which are
integrated with distributed generations (DGs). In the proposed method, the weighted least squares (WLS) method is used to optimize the objective function of the error measurement which is built by the network configuration, real-time and pseudo measurements at the main substation and DG buses. The proposed method is verified by simulation case studies of the 17-bus radial distribution network integrated with DGs including a solar power plant and two wind power plants. The simulation results in this work confirm that the proposed method is high accuracy for voltage estimation.

Keywords: distribution network system, real-time measurement, distributed generation, voltage estimation

  1. [1] B. Khan, J. M. Guerrero, S. Padmanaban, H. H. Alhelou, O. P. Mahela, and S. Tanwar. Active Electrical Distribution Network: A Smart Approach. John Wiley & Sons, 2021.
  2. [2] C. Masters, (2002) “Voltage rise: the big issue when connecting embedded generation to long 11 kV overhead lines" Power engineering journal 16(1): 5–12. DOI: 10.1049/pe:20020101.
  3. [3] R. C. Dugan, M. F. Mc Granaghan, S. Santoso, and H. W. Beaty. Electric power systems quality. 2004.
  4. [4] K. Furukawa, D. Katoh, and T. Onishi. “Next generation SCADA system for distribution network with large amounts of renewable energy”. In: 2012 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution. IEEE. 2012, 1–5. DOI: 10.1109/CICED.2012.6508719.
  5. [5] H.-M. Kim, D.-J. Kang, and T.-H. Kim. “Flexible key distribution for scada network using multi-agent system”. In: 2007 ECSIS Symposium on Bio-inspired, Learning, and Intelligent Systems for Security (BLISS 2007). IEEE. 2007, 29–34.
  6. [6] W. G. C. Bandara, D. Almeida, R. I. Godaliyadda, M. P. Ekanayake, and J. Ekanayake, (2021) “A complete state estimation algorithm for a three-phase four-wire low voltage distribution system with high penetration of solar PV" International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 124: 106332. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijepes.2020.106332.
  7. [7] F. Bignucolo, R. Caldon, and M. Valente. “Probabilistic voltage estimation for the active control of distribution networks”. In: Proc. 19th International Conference on Electricity Distribution. 2007.
  8. [8] Y. Ju, W. Wu, F. Ge, K. Ma, Y. Lin, and L. Ye, (2017) “Fast decoupled state estimation for distribution networks considering branch ampere measurements" IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 9(6): 6338–6347. DOI: 10.1109/ TSG.2017.2709463.
  9. [9] C. Muscas, S. Sulis, A. Angioni, F. Ponci, and A. Monti, (2014) “Impact of different uncertainty sources on a three-phase state estimator for distribution networks" IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 63(9): 2200–2209. DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2014.2308352.
  10. [10] C.-H. Oh, S.-I. Go, J.-H. Choi, S.-J. Ahn, and S.-Y. Yun, (2020) “Voltage estimation method for power distribution networks using high-precision measurements" Energies 13(9): 2385. DOI: 10.3390/en13092385.
  11. [11] C. Muscas, M. Pau, P. A. Pegoraro, and S. Sulis, (2015) “Uncertainty of voltage profile in PMU-based distribution system state estimation" IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 65(5): 988–998. DOI:
  12. [12] A. T. Ferede, S. A. Olalekan, H. E. Abel, and A. Y. Ayalew, (2020) “Power loss mitigation and voltage profile improvement with distributed generation using grid-based multi-objective harmony search algorithm" Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering 13(2): 5–10.
  13. [13] A. E. Kiprakis and A. R. Wallace, (2004) “Maximising energy capture from distributed generators in weak networks" IEE Proceedings-Generation, Transmission and Distribution 151(5): 611–618. DOI: 10.1049/ipgtd:20040697.
  14. [14] M. E. Baran and I. M. El-Markabi, (2007) “A multiagent-based dispatching scheme for distributed generators for voltage support on distribution feeders" IEEE Transactions on power systems 22(1): 52–59. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRS.2006.889140.
  15. [15] L. Van Dai, N. Minh Khoa, and L. Cao Quyen, (2020) “An innovatory method based on continuation power flow to analyze power system voltage stability with distributed generation penetration" Complexity 2020: 1–15. DOI:10.1155/2020/8037837.
  16. [16] M. Bollen and A. Sannino, (2005) “Voltage control with inverter-based distributed generation" IEEE transactions on Power Delivery 20(1): 519–520. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2004.834679.
  17. [17] C. Hird, H. Leite, N. Jenkins, and H. Li, (2004) “Network voltage controller for distributed generation" IEE Proceedings-Generation, Transmission and Distribution 151(2): 150–156. DOI: 10.1049/ip-gtd:20040083.
  18. [18] S. Liew and G. Strbac, (2002) “Maximising penetration of wind generation in existing distribution networks" IEE Proceedings-Generation, Transmission and Distribution 149(3): 256–262. DOI: 10.1049/ip-gtd:20020218.
  19. [19] F. Senani, A. Rahab, and H. Benalla, (2018) “Vector control and direct power control of wind energy conversion system based on a DFIG" Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering 11(1): 15–20.
  20. [20] J. L. Rodriguez-Amenedo, S. Arnalte, and J. C. Burgos, (2002) “Automatic generation control of a wind farm with variable speed wind turbines" IEEE Transactions on energy conversion 17(2): 279–284. DOI: 10.1109/TEC.2002.1009481.
  21. [21] S. H. Jangamshetti and V. G. Rau, (1999) “Site matching of wind turbine generators: a case study" IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 14(4): 1537–1543. DOI: 10.1109/60.815102.
  22. [22] N. Babu, J. M. Guerrero, P. Siano, R. Peesapati, and G. Panda, (2020) “An improved adaptive control strategy in grid-tied PV system with active power filter for power quality enhancement" IEEE Systems Journal 15(2): 2859–2870. DOI: 10.1109/JSYST.2020.2985164.
  23. [23] F. Olivier, P. Aristidou, D. Ernst, and T. Van Cutsem, (2015) “Active management of low-voltage networks for mitigating overvoltages due to photovoltaic units" IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 7(2): 926–936. DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2015.2410171.
  24. [24] L. Liu and J. He. “Application of weighted least square algorithm in distribution network state estimation with finite measurement information”. In: 2014 International Conference on Power System Technology. IEEE. 2014, 134-138. DOI: 10.1109/POWERCON.2014.6993544.



69th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Enter your name and email below to receive latest published articles in Journal of Applied Science and Engineering.