Antar Ahmed Antar1, Asem Abdulqawi Alsofiany1, and Mohd Yusof Bin Harun This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1

1Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia


Received: December 4, 2021
Accepted: May 12, 2022
Publication Date: June 17, 2022

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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The increase in anthropogenic and agricultural activities has resulted in a significant discharge of heavy metalpolluted water into the environment. The removal of heavy metals from polluted water through the use of sustainable, low-cost, and biodegradable sorbents with high efficiency has become a research priority. The novel aspect of this work is the optimisation study of Fe (II) adsorption from wastewater by Clay-alginate composite beads. The synergistic combination of these adsorbents yields a composite of clay-biomass adsorbents with superior adsorption properties and high binding sites. The optimisation experiment was designed using the Box-Behnken method. In 46 experimental runs, five factors were investigated: initial pH (2-12), initial Fe (II) concentration (200-1000mg/l), stirring speed (0-250 rpm), adsorbent dosage (0.1-0.5 gm), and contact time (30-180 min). According to the ANOVA analysis, all factors are significant and have an impact on the removal efficiency. The optimum conditions for the selected factors are 10.23, 209mg/l, 65.34rpm, 0.107gm, and 128.6min for the initial pH, initial Fe (II) concentration, stirring speed, adsorbent dosage, and contact time, respectively. At these optimum conditions, removal efficiency could reach 52.9%. The findings of this study would be useful to researchers and those interested in wastewater treatment processes, particularly those involving the removal of heavy metals and hazardous waste.

Keywords: bentonite, Na-alginate, heavy metal, optimisation, Box-Behnken


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