Muhammad Tayyab Naqash  1, Mohamed Ouzzane1, and Ouahid Harireche2

1Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic University in Madinah, P.O. Box: 170, Saudi Arabia
2Mechanical Engineering Department, Islamic University Madinah, P.O. Box: 170, Saudi Arabia


Received: December 13, 2021
Accepted: March 14, 2022
Publication Date: April 15, 2022

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||  


Harsh weather conditions often require heating during winters and cooling in summers. In many developing countries, power outages caused by energy shortages cause discomfort for the residents. Thus, more sustainable systems for air conditioning are desirable in these countries. The present study proposes an examination of the viability of Earth-to-Air Heat Ex-changers (EAHE) in severe environments (extreme summer and winter seasons) and comprises numerical modeling using COMSOL Multiphysics.
In most existing studies, EAHE systems are examined and validated for particular field conditions. Despite the valuable information from these studies, it is vital to perform investigations within a regional context, considering specific environmental conditions at the regional scale. The current research addresses the performance of Earth-to-Air Heat Exchangers in a severe climate typical of the region of Islamabad. To this end, thermal properties are selected according to soil profiles specific of this region. The annual mean earth temperature is carefully chosen from RETScreen daily records in the same region.
Models are tested against analytic solutions in a 2-D context and validated using large-scale field tests. The complete numerical model integrates heat transfer in the ground where em-bedded piping is subject to air circulation. Heat transfer occurs between the piping system and the surrounding soil, which results in heating or cooling of the circulating air mass, depending on the seasonal conditions.
The results obtained in field conditions validated by actual experiments show interesting predictions of air temperatures at the outlet even in a severe climate. This depicts that ground temperatures preserved from climatic conditions can benefit EAHE systems even in severe climate conditions.

Keywords: renewable energy, EAHE systems, severe climate, ground temperature, COMSOL Multiphysics, airflow and heat transfer in pipes


  1. [1] M. Naqash, M. Aburamadan, O. Harireche, A. AlKassem, and Q. Farooq, (2021) “The Potential of Wind Energy and Design Implications on Wind Farms in Saudi Arabia" International Journal of Renewable Energy Development 10(4): 839–856. DOI: 10.14710/ijred.2021.38238.
  2. [2] U. Younas, (2016) “Pakistan geothermal renewable energy potential for electric power generation: A survey" Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews: DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.04.038.
  3. [3] R. Anjum, X. He, J. I. Tanoli, and S. T. Raza, (2017) “Contemporary Temperature Fluctuation in Urban Areas of Pakistan" Atmosphere 8(1): DOI: 10.3390/atmos8010012.
  4. [4] N. Zaigham and Z. Nayyar, (2010) “Renewable hot dry rock geothermal energy source and its potential in Pakistan" Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14(3): 1124–1129. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2009.10.002.
  5. [5] J. Ahmad, (2014) “The geothermal energy potential of Pakistan clean sustainable solution for our energy future" GRC Transactions 38: 571–576.
  6. [6] I. Gondal, S. Masood, and M. Amjad, (2017) “Review of geothermal energy development efforts in Pakistan and way forward" Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews: DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.12.097.
  7. [7] M. Isa, D. Cesarian, I. Abir, E. Yusibani, M. Surbakti, and M. Umar, (2020) “Remote sensing satellite imagery and in-situ data for identifying geothermal potential sites: Jaboi, indonesia" International Journal of Renewable Energy Development: DOI: 10.14710/ijred.9.2.237-245.
  8. [8] Ł. Amanowicz, (2018) “Influence of geometrical parameters on the flow characteristics of multi-pipe earth-to-air heat exchangers – experimental and CFD investigations" Applied energy: DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.05.096.
  9. [9] M. Santamouris, G. Mihalakakou, C. Balaras, A. Argiriou, D. Asimakopoulos, and M. Vallindras, (1995) “Use of buried pipes for energy conservation in cooling of agricultural greenhouses" Solar energy: DOI: 10.1016/0038-092X(95)00028-P.
  10. [10] M. Santamouris, G. Mihalakakou, C. Balaras, J. Lewis, M. Vallindras, and A. Argiriou, (1996) “Energy conservation in greenhouses with buried pipes" Energy: DOI: 10.1016/0360-5442(95)00121-2.
  11. [11] N. Zaigham, Z. Nayyar, and N. Hisamuddin, (2009) “Review of geothermal energy resources in Pakistan" Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews: DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2007.07.010.
  12. [12] I. Ahmad and A. Rashid, (2010) “Study of geothermal energy resources of Pakistan for electric power generation" Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects: DOI: 10.1080/15567030802606210.
  13. [13] N. Benrachi, M. Ouzzane, A. Smaili, L. Lamarche, M. Badache, and W. Maref, (2020) “Numerical parametric study of a new earth-air heat exchanger configuration designed for hot and arid climates" International Journal of Green Energy: DOI: 10.1080/15435075.2019.1700121.
  14. [14] K. Karyanto, N. Haerudin, S. Suharno, I. Darmawan, M. Adli, P. Manurung, et al., (2021) “Numerical modeling for the steady-state condition of the geothermal system in Way Ratai" Journal of Applied Science and Engineering 25(3): 447–456. DOI: 10.6180/jase.202206_25(3).0011.
  15. [15] M. Sarkowi and R.Wibowo, (2021) “Reservoir Identification of Bac-Man Geothermal Field Based on Gravity Anomaly Analysis and Modeling" Journal of Applied Science and Engineering 25(2): 329–338.
  16. [16] I. M. Sheikh, M. K. Pasha, V. S.Williams, S. Q. Raza, K. S. Khan, et al., (2007) “Environmental geology of the Islamabad-Rawalpindi area" Regional studies of the Potwar plateau area, Northern Pakistan 2078: 1.
  17. [17] Y. Dong, J. McCartney, and N. Lu, (2015) “Critical Review of Thermal Conductivity Models for Unsaturated Soils" Geotechnical and Geological Engineering: DOI: 10.1007/s10706-015-9843-2.
  18. [18] B. Larwa and K. Kupiec, (2019) “Study of temperature distribution in the ground" Chemical and Process Engineering: DOI: 10.24425/cpe.2019.126106.
  19. [19] M. Ouzzane, P. Eslami-Nejad, Z. Aidoun, and L. Lamarche, (2014) “Analysis of the convective heat exchange effect on the undisturbed ground temperature" Solar Energy: DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2014.07.015.
  20. [20] H. Carslow, J. Jaeger, and J. Morral, (1986) “Conduction of Heat in Solids, Second Edition" Journal of Engineering materials and Technology: DOI: 10.1115/1.3225900.
  21. [21] F. Smithies, (1947) “Conduction of Heat in Solids" The Mathematical Gazette 386: 30. DOI: 10.2307/3610347.
  22. [22] COMSOL Multiphysics® Modeling Software. Comsol, 2016.
  23. [23] N. Hatraf, F. Chabane, A. Brima, N. Moummi, and A. Moummi, (2014) “Parametric Study of to Design an Earth to Air Heat Exchanger with Experimental Validation" Engineering journal: DOI: 10.4186/ej.2014.18.2.41.


42nd percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Enter your name and email below to receive latest published articles in Journal of Applied Science and Engineering.