Journal of Applied Science and Engineering

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Nur Bashirah Azli This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1, Radzuan Junin1, Augustine Aja Agi1, and Abdul Rahim Risal1

1Department of Petroleum Engineering, School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Bahru, Malaysia

Received: December 5, 2020
Accepted: March 11, 2021
Publication Date: October 14, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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Polymer flooding effectiveness is hindered by high temperature and high salinity due to polymer degradation. Researchers proposed the addition of nanoparticle to improve polymer stability to withstand reservoir conditions. Therefore, extensive rheological study and flooding test of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solutions with silica dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) were carried out under high temperature and high salinity conditions. Shear viscosity of HPAM-SiO2 NPs in rheological study was measured using rheometer while apparent viscosity in porous media was calculated from flooding test and modelled using a numerical model. Apparent viscosity includes shear viscosity and elongational viscosity. Shear viscosity was estimated from Carreau-Yasuda model and elongational viscosity was correlated with Deborah number via relaxation time. At T=80°C the shear viscosity and apparent viscosity in porous media of HPAM-SiO2 NPs are 50% and 64% higher than HPAM. The results further shows that HPAM-SiO2 NPs’ shear viscosity and apparent viscosity in porous media at 60,000 ppm of NaCl are 39% and 53% higher than HPAM, respectively. Nevertheless, enhanced apparent viscosity of HPAM-SiO2 NPs was owed to the formation of stable and dense interwoven HPAM molecules induced from the hydrogen bonds and alkoxysilane (Si-O-Si) crosslinks between SiO2 NPs and HPAM. This study suggested that the addition of SiO2 NPs could significantly improves the HPAM apparent viscosity in porous media under high temperature and high salinity producing ideal mobility control agent.

Keywords: Shear viscosity; Apparent viscosity; Porous medium; Viscoelastic; Carreau-Yasuda model; Deborah number


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