G. Tigere1, U. Mohammed Iqbal This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1 and S. Vignesh2

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203, Tamil Nadu, India
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Vadapalani Campus, Chennai 600026, Tamil Nadu, India


Received: June 7, 2018
Accepted: October 30, 2018
Publication Date: March 1, 2019

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.6180/jase.201903_22(1).0010  


Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) technique has proved that it drastically reduces costs in machining processes and thus is increasingly being used to replace flood cooling as a cooling method in machining processes. It also minimizes negative effects of cutting fluids on environment, human health and production efficiency. This study seeks to make a comparative evaluation on the effects of synthetic fluid and vegetable oil as cutting fluids in a MQL environment to attain enhanced surface finish, reduced tool wear and dimensional integrity in end milling of OHNS die steel using a CNC Vertical Milling Center. The parameters considered for the experiments are feed rate, fluid pressure and cutting speed. The results show good improvement in surface finish, tool wear rate and dimensional integrity when using MQL technique in milling of OHNS. Among the two types of cutting fluids the vegetable oil yielded better results on the surface roughness, tool wear rate and dimensional integrity characteristics in milling of OHNS Die steel.

Keywords: MQL, OHNS Die Steel, Synthetic Coolant, Vegetable Oil, Surface Finish, Tool Wear


  1. [1] Leskover, P., and J. Grum (1986) The metallurgical aspect of machining, Annales of CIRP 35(1), 537–550. doi: 10.1016/S0007-8506(07)60199-2
  2. [2] Tonshoff, H. K., and E. Brinkomeier (1994) Determination of the mechanical and thermal influences on machined surface by micro hardness and residual stress analysis, Annales of CIRP 29(2), 519–532.
  3. [3] Byrne, G., and E. Scholta (1993) Environmentally clean machining processes—a strategic approach, Annales of CIRP 42(1), 471–474. doi: 10.1016/S00078506(07)62488-3
  4. [4] Wakabayashi, T. (1998) Turning using extremely small amount of cutting fluids, JSME 41(1), 143–148. doi: 10.1299/jsmec.41.143
  5. [5] Khan, M. M. A., and N. R. Dhar (2016) Performance evaluation of minimum quantity lubrication by vegetable oil in terms of cutting force, cutting zone temperature, tool wear, job dimension and surface finish in turning AISI-1060 steel.
  6. [6] Sidda Reddy, B., J. Suresh Kumar, and K. Vijaya Kumar Reddy (2011) Optimization of surface roughness in CNC end milling using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm, International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology 3(8), 102108.
  7. [7] Sharma,V.S., N. M.Dogra, and J.Suri (2009) Cooling techniques for improved productivity in turning, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 49, 435453. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2008.12.010
  8. [8] Khan, M. M., N. R. Dhar (2005) Performance evaluation of minimum quantity lubrication by vegetable oil in terms of cutting force, cutting zone temperature, tool wear, job dimension and surface finish in turning AISI-1060 steel, Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A 7(11) 1790–1799. doi: 10.1631/jzus.2006. A1790
  9. [9] Rahim, E., and H. Sasahara (2011) A study of the effectof palm oil as MQLlubricant on high speed drilling of titanium alloys, Tribology International 44(3), 309– 317. doi: 10.1016/j.triboint.2010.10.032
  10. [10] Khan, M. M., M. H. Mithu, and N. R. Dhar (2009) Effects of minimum quantity lubrication on turning AISI-9310 alloy steel using vegetable oil-based cutting fluid, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 209(1516), 5573–5583. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec. 2009.05.014
  11. [11] Liao, Y. S., H. M. Lin, and Y. C. Chen (2007) Feasibility study of the minimum quantity lubrication in highspeed end milling of NAK80 hardened steel by coated carbide tool, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 47(11), 1667–1676. doi: 10.1016/j. ijmachtools.2007.01.005
  12. [12] Attanasio, A., M. Gelfi, C. Giardini, and C. Remino (2006) Minimal quantity lubrication in turning: effect on tool wear, Wear 260(3), 333–338. doi: 10.1016/j. wear.2005.04.024
  13. [13] Dhar, N. R., and S. Islam (2005) Improvement in Machinability Characteristics and Working Environment by Minimum Quantity Lubrication, CASR Project, BUET, Unpublished Database.
  14. [14] Greaves, I. A., E. A. Eisen, T. J. Smith,L. J. Pothier, D. Kriebel, and S. R.Woskie (1997) Respiratoryhealthof automobile workers exposed to metalworking fluid aerosols: respiratory symptoms, American Journal of Industrial Medicine 32(5), 450–459. doi: 10.1002/ (SICI)1097-0274(199711)32:5<450::AID-AJIM4> 3.0.CO;2-W
  15. [15] Lugscheider, E., O. Knotek, C. Barimani, T. Leyendecker, O. Lemmer, and R. Wenke (2015) Investigations on hard coated reamers in different lubricant free cutting operations, Surface and Coatings Technology 90(12), 172–177. doi: 10.1016/S0257-8972(96) 03114-3
  16. [16] Machado, A. R., and J. Wallbank (1997) The effect of extremely low lubricant volumes in machining, Wear 210(1–2),76–82.doi:10.1016/S0043-1648(97)00059-8
  17. [17] Dhara, N. R., I. Sumaiya, and K. Mohammad (2007) Effect of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) on tool wear, surface roughness and dimensional deviation in turning AISI-4340 steel, G. U. J. Sci. 20(2), 2332.
  18. [18] Ozcelik, M. H., B. Kuram, and E. Demirbas (2011) Evaluation of vegetable based cutting fluids with extreme pressure and cutting parameters in turning of AISI 304L by taguchi method, Journal of Cleaner Production 19(1718), 2049–2056. doi: 10.1016/j. jclepro.2011.07.013