Journal of Applied Science and Engineering

Published by Tamkang University Press


Impact Factor



Di Wu1, Yang Yi1, Wenbo Lin1, Jianjian Wu1, and Yanxin Yang2This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

1School of Architecture and Transportation Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004, P.R. China

2School of Civil Engineering, Sichuan University of Science & Engineering, Zigong, Sichuan 643000, P.R. China



Received: January 1, 2024
Accepted: September 11, 2023
Publication Date: January 12, 2024

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||  

Real-time monitoring of foundation pits is an important part of the engineering construction. This paper proposes a method of deformation monitoring of foundation pit based on MEMS technology. The algorithm based on time-domain integration is adopted, and a fixed distance test is designed to verify the feasibility of the algorithm. Through the indoor model test of foundation pit monitoring, MEMS sensors are embedded to collect the acceleration, rotation angle and the other signals of soil movement, and then the acceleration signal is integrated to obtain displacement by algorithm calculation. Finally, the deformation characteristics of soil in the process of foundation pit are analyzed by using soil displacement and rotation angle to investigate the effectiveness of applying MEMS technology to foundation pit monitoring. The test results show that the MEMS sensor could accurately collect the acceleration, rotation angle and other signals of soil movement in model box. The monitoring method proposed in this paper lay a theoretical foundation and experimental verification for the application of MEMS technology in foundation pit monitoring.


Keywords: MEMS technology, excavation deformation monitoring, Acceleration, Time domain integration algorithm, Displacement of soil

  1. [1] R. A. Mangushev, A. I. Osokin, and L. V. Garnyk, (2016) “Experience in preserving adjacent buildings during excavation of large foundation pits under conditions of dense development" Soil Mechanics & Foundation Engineering 53(5): 291–297. DOI: 10.1007/s11204-016-9401-9.
  2. [2] P. Lin, P. Liu, G. Ankit, and Y. J. Singh, (2021) “Deformation monitoring analysis and numerical simulation in a deep foundation pit" Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering 58(1): 56–62. DOI: 10.1007/s11204-021-09706-2.
  3. [3] K. Ganjalipour, (2021) “Review of inclinometer errors and provide correction methods for bias shift error and depth position error of the probe" Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 39(6): 4017–4034. DOI: 10.1007/s10706-021-01743-w.
  4. [4] E. S. Okiemute, M. N. Ono, and O. F. Oduyebo, (2018) “Comparative analysis of DGPS and total station accuracies for static deformation monitoring of engineering structures" Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology 12(6): 19–29.
  5. [5] J. G. Zhou, H. J. Xiao, W. W. Jiang, W. F. Bai, and G. L. Liu, (2019) “Automatic subway tunnel displacement monitoring using robotic total station" Measurement 2020: 15. DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2019.107251.
  6. [6] H. Zhang, S. Xu, and T. Lu. “GPS height application and gross error detection in foundation pit monitoring”. In: Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium (IS-Shanghai), Shanghai-China, April-2008 (Vol-20). 2008, 239–242.
  7. [7] L. Hu, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, and S. Tian, (2014) “Security monitoring technology of foundation excavation horizontal displacement by rapid static GPS method" Construction Technology 43(16): 56–58.
  8. [8] Z. X. Liu and X. J. Zhang, (2013) “Research on deformation monitoring on supporting structure of deep foundation pit engineering based on gps" Applied Mechanics and Materials 239-240: 595–598. DOI: 10.4028/
  9. [9] B. Wolfgang and M. Andreas. “Investigating laser scanner accuracy”. In: Proceedings of Xixth Cipa Symposium. 10. 2003, 696–702.
  10. [10] X. L. Deng and L. H. Li, (2017) “Refined modeling of complex geological body based on three-dimensional laser scanning technique" Journal of Engineering Geology 25(01): 209–214. DOI: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2017.01.027.
  11. [11] D. Han, G. Qin, Y. Zhou, D. Wang, and Y. Yang, (2019) “Application of BIM and 3D laser scanning in foundation pit monitoring" Journal of Chongqing Jiaotong University (Natural Science) 38(06): 72. DOI: 10.1016/j.autcon.2021.103706.
  12. [12] R. Bernini, A. Minardo, and L. Zeni, (2011) “Distributed sensing at centimeter-scale spatial resolution by BOFDA: Measurements and signal processing" IEEE Photonics Journal 4(1): 48–56. DOI: 10.1109/JPHOT.2011.2179024.
  13. [13] C. Zhu, K. Zhang, H. Cai, Z. Tao, B. An, M. He, and J. Liu, (2019) “Combined application of optical fibers and CRLD bolts to monitor deformation of a pit-in-pit foundation" Advances in Civil Engineering 2019(1): 1–16. DOI: 10.1155/2019/2572034.
  14. [14] J. Wu, L. Peng, J. Li, X. Zhou, J. Zhong, C. Wang, and J. Sun, (2021) “Rapid safety monitoring and analysis of foundation pit construction using unmanned aerial vehicle images" Automation in Construction 128: 103706. DOI: 10.1016/j.autcon.2021.103706.
  15. [15] L. Wang, X. Weng, Y. Li, B. Guan, Z. Yao, and Q. Bo, (2018) “Study on the application of ultrasonic wave in foundation settlement monitoring" Geotechnical Testing Journal 42(2): 365–384.
  16. [16] L. L. Guan, S. H. Zhang, Y. H. Li, and P. Sun, (2015) “Application of dense surface modeling technology in displacement monitoring of deep foundation pit" Yangtze River 46(11): 76–79.
  17. [17] S. Alatza, I. Papoutsis, D. Paradissis, C. Kontoes, and G. A. Papadopoulos, (2020) “Multi-temporal in SAR analysis for monitoring ground deformation in Amorgos Island, Greece" Sensors 20(2): 338. DOI: 10.3390/s20020338.
  18. [18] L. Yang, T. Wu, and S. Kang, (2002) “The microsensor technology using to identify the initiation time of impact induced elastic waves" Journal of Applied Science and Engineering 5(3): 121–127. DOI: 10.6180/jase. 2002.5.3.01.
  19. [19] V. Bennett, T. Abdoun, and M. Barendse, (2015) “Evaluation of soft clay field consolidation using MEMS-based in-place inclinometer-accelerometer array" Geotechnical Testing Journal 38(3): 290–302.
  20. [20] C. Li, S. W. Song, and J. Z. Sun, (2023) “Application and simulation research of MEMS inertial sensor in reservoir bank slope deformation monitoring" Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering 42(05): 1248–1258.
  21. [21] D. W. Ha, J. M. Kim, and Y. Kim, (2018) “Development and application of a wireless MEMS-based borehole inclinometer for automated measurement of ground movement" Automation in Construction 87: 49–59. DOI: 10.1016/j.autcon.2017.12.011.
  22. [22] M. Darrow and D. Jensen, (2014) “Cold region applications for in-place inclinometers based on microelectromechanical systems technology: Four evaluation case studies" Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2433(1): 1–9. DOI: 10.3141/2433-01.
  23. [23] T. Abdoun, P. Bennett, L. Danisch, and M. Barendse. “Real-time construction monitoring with a wireless shape-acceleration array system”. In: Geotechnical Special Publication. 17. 09. 2008, 533–540. DOI: 10.1061/40972(311)67.
  24. [24] M. Barzegar, S. Blanks, B. Sainsbury, and W. Timms, (2022) “MEMS technology and applications in geotechnical monitoring: A review" Measurement Science and Technology 33(5): 052001. DOI: 10.1088/1361-6501/ac4f00.
  25. [25] S. Stiros, (2008) “Errors in velocities and displacements deduced from accelerographs: An approach based on the theory of error propagation" Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 28(5): 415–420. DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2007.07.004.
  26. [26] A. Brandt and R. Brincker, (2014) “Integrating time signals in frequency domain – comparison with time domain integration" Measurement 58: 511–519. DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2014.09.004.
  27. [27] L. Zhu, Y. Fu, R. Chow, B. F. Spencer, J. W. Park, and K. Mechitov, (2018) “Development of a high-sensitivity wireless accelerometer for structural health monitoring" Sensors 18(1): 262. DOI: 10.3390/s18010262.
  28. [28] C. Yang, D. W. Tao, Q. Ma, Q. C. Jie, and L. Y. Wang, (2019) “Realization of strong earthquake data processing technology based on Matlab" seismological and geomagnetic observation and research 40(03): 148–153.
  29. [29] H. Zhu, K. Gao, Y. Xia, F. Gao, S. Weng, Y. Sun, and Q. Hu, (2020) “Multi-rate data fusion for dynamic displacement measurement of beam-like supertall structures using acceleration and strain sensors" Structural Health Monitoring 19(2): 520–536. DOI: 10.1177/1475921719857043.
  30. [30] V. Vukmirica, I. Trajkovski, and N. Asanovic, (2012) “Two methods for the determination of inertial sensor parameters" Scientific Technical Review 60(3): 27–33.
  31. [31] X. Cheng, T. Zhou, F. Sun K.and Yang, H. Xie, and S. Wang, (2019) “Time/Frequency-domain integration method of vibration acceleration signal processed by wavelet denoising" Electric power and energy 40(06): 633–637.
  32. [32] P. Hsieh and C. Ou, (1999) “Shape of ground surface settlement profiles caused by excavation" Canadian Geotechnical Journal 35(6): 1004–1017. DOI: 10.1139/t98-056.



69th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Enter your name and email below to receive latest published articles in Journal of Applied Science and Engineering.