V. Y. Raj  1, M. S. YobThis email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1, 2, M. J. Ab Latif2, O. Kurdi3, 4, M. S. Kassim2, and M. M. Izhar5

1Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100, Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia.
2Advanced Manufacturing Centre (AMC), Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100, Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia.
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.
4National Center of Sustainable Transportation Technology, Indonesia.
5Faculty of Education and Social Sciences, University of Selangor, Kampus Bestari Jaya, 45600 Bestari Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.


 

Received: January 25, 2022
Accepted: May 10, 2022
Publication Date: June 8, 2022

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.


Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.6180/jase.202303_26(3).0003  


ABSTRACT


This paper describes the design and analysis of a four-point bending test rig for ladder frame specimens. The test rig is used to support the specimen at two equal points when the transverse load is applied. The specimen was designed using I-beam size 100 mm X 100 mm and in the length of 6000 mm. A four-point bending experiment is performed to determine the stress and deformation towards the applied force. The existing machine to perform a four-point bending test is the Instron®5585 Universal Testing Machines (UTM). However, this machine can only measure specimen maximum up to 500 mm length. This study aims to design and fabricate a four-point bending test rig for a specimen length of 6000 mm. The testing rig design should be much stronger than the test specimen. It was demonstrated that the stress and deformation result is used to compare with the Finite element analysis (FEA) result of the specimen model. Therefore, the test rig design is analyzed to ensure that it has the capacity to withstand a maximum load that can fail the specimen. FEA was performed to determine the maximum safe load that can be applied, the safety factor, and the stresses on the test rig parts. FEA result indicates that the test rig is safe to use for the proposed specimen. The FEA results were targeted to enclose the safety factor of 1.25. An error of 1.66 % was obtained from the deformation result between both the specimen and the test rig.


Keywords: Four-point bending; testing rig; ladder frame; finite element analysis; structural analysis


REFERENCES


  1. [1] S. Al-Sabah, D. F. Laefer, L. T. Hong, M. P. Huynh, J.-L. Le, T. Martin, P. Matis, P. McGetrick, A. Schultz, M. E. Shemshadian, and R. Dizon, (2020) “Introduction of the intermeshed steel connection - A new universal steel connection" Buildings 10(3): DOI: 10.3390/buildings10030037.
  2. [2] C. Chuaymung, C.-N. Benyajati, and S. Olarnrithinun, (2015) “Structural Strength Simulations of Ladder Frame Chassis for Light Agriculture Truck" SAE Technical Papers 2015-March(March): DOI: 10.4271/2015-01-0090.
  3. [3] J. L. Galos and M. P. Sutcliffe. “Development of a structural optimisation methodology for use in the design of a composite semi-trailer chassis”. In: 2017-August. Cited by: 3. 2017.
  4. [4] K. Y. Patil and E. R. Deore, (2015) “Stress analysis of ladder chassis with various cross sections" IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) 12(4): 111–116.
  5. [5] A. H. Kumar and V. Deepanjali, (2016) “Design & analysis of automobile chassis" International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT) 5(1): 187–196.
  6. [6] R. K. Sahu, S. K. Sahu, S. Behera, and V. S. Kumar, (2016) “Static load analysis of a ladder type chassis frame" Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research 2(5): 2454–1362.
  7. [7] M. S. Yob, S. Mansor, and R. Sulaiman, (2014) “Individual stiffness of 3D space frame thin walled structural joint considering local buckling effect" Applied Mechanics and Materials 554: 411–415. DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.554.411.
  8. [8] O. Kurdi, M. Yob, S. Dasson, S. Barrathi, A. Altayeb, and I. Yulianti. “Stress Reduction of Pickup Truck Chassis Using Finite Element Method”. In: 824. 1. Cited by: 2; All Open Access, Bronze Open Access. 2017. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/824/1/012001.
  9. [9] O. Kurdi, R. A. Rahman, P. M. Samin, M. S. Yob, N. K. Nadarajan, and I. Yulianti, (2017) “Torsional Stiffness Improvement of Truck Chassis Using Finite Elemen Method" Rotasi 19(2): 76–81.
  10. [10] O. Kurdi, M. S. Yob, A. Haji Ishamuddin, A. Suprihanto, S. A. Widyanto, D. B. Wibowo, and I. Yulianti. “Design and fabrication of a twist fixture to measure torsional stiffness of a pick up chassis”. In: 159. Cited by: 1; All Open Access, Gold Open Access. 2018. DOI:10.1051/matecconf/201815902030.
  11. [11] M. Nebe, T. Schmack, T. Schaefer, and F. Walther, (2021) “Experimental and numerical investigation on the impact response of CFRP under 3-point-bending" Composites Part C: Open Access 4: 100079.
  12. [12] M. Asyraf, M. Ishak, S. Sapuan, and N. Yidris, (2020) “Conceptual design of multi-operation outdoor flexural creep test rig using hybrid concurrent engineering approach" Journal of Materials Research and Technology 9(2): 2357–2368. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2019.12.067.
  13. [13] A. ASTM et al., (2014) “ASTM A370-14, standard test methods and definitions for mechanical testing of steel products":
  14. [14] I. ASTM, (2007) “Standard test methods for flexural properties of unreinforced and reinforced plastics and electrical insulating materials" ASTM D790-07:
  15. [15] D. Crump, J. Dulieu-Barton, and J. Savage, (2010) “Design and commission of an experimental test rig to apply a full-scale pressure load on composite sandwich panels representative of an aircraft secondary structure" Measurement Science and Technology 21(1): DOI:10.1088/0957-0233/21/1/015108.
  16. [16] H. Seifi, A. Rezaee Javan, X. Lin, and Y. M. Xie, (2020) “An innovative and inexpensive experimental setup for testing connections in gridshell structures" Engineering Structures 207: DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2020.110257.
  17. [17] I. D. M. S. Yob, (2021) “Design and Development of Low Cost Bending Machine" Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (JMET) 13(1): 1–9.
  18. [18] M. I. Rokhim, M. S. Yob, M. J. B. A. Latif, and F. B. A. Munir, (2019) “Design and fabrication of a three-point bending test rig to evaluate strength and stiffness of Ibeam" Universal Journal of Mechanical Engineering 7(6): 380–385. DOI: 10.13189/ujme.2019.070609.
  19. [19] D. Kondayya, (2016) “STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF A LOAD TEST RIG AND DESIGN EVALUATION USING FEM" 2(9): 1–6.
  20. [20] K. M. Phalak, A. R. Patil, M. V. Barve, and P. D. Darade, (2015) “Design and Finite Element Analysis of Hydro Test rig for testing piston valve ( 15-40 NB )" 3(4):36–41.
  21. [21] M. PRICOP, V. ONCICA, and I. C. SCURTU, (2013) “Factor of safety in offshore structures design according to environmental loads" Scientific Bulletin of Naval Academy 16(2): 152–157.
  22. [22] A. Mohan, (2001) “Design Optimisation and Fatigue Analysis of Stroke Endurance Test Rig Using Finite Element Analysis" int. j. prod. res 39(13): 2867–2894.
  23. [23] K. Jármai and B. Bolló, (2017) “Vehicle and Automotive Engineering" Lect. Notes Mech. Eng. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-51189-4.
  24. [24] T. Officials, (2004) “Standard Specification for Asphalt Cement Standard Specification for" 70: 1–2.
  25. [25] R. Chitra and S. Thendral., (2018) “Limit State Method Of Design For Steel" 119(12): 9169–81.