Alaa K. Al-azzawi This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Department of Mechatronics Eng. Techniques, Technical Engineering College, Middle Technical University, Baghdad-Iraq


 

Received: March 2, 2021
Accepted: May 3, 2021
Publication Date: August 14, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.


Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.6180/jase.202204_25(2).0001  


ABSTRACT


In ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas used with the applications of wireless communication systems (WCS), the following five antenna parameters; radiation patterns, directivity, bandwidth, efficiency and antenna gain should be well optimized. A new design approach-based on coupling matrix theory of synthesis antenna has been presented. The most important parameters of this matrix are; external normalized quality factor, normalized un-loaded quality factor, radiation quality factor and coupling coefficients between the resonators. Accuracy in calculating these parameters will greatly facilitate control of the antenna bandwidth to be designed. The design approach included a BPF which was also expanded to become an antenna arrays-filter in the hope of increasing the gain and bandwidth of the antenna. Further, a matching unit is placed between the designed BPF and the antenna, to overcome the mismatching situation, and to achieve a high transmission power. The paper presented a new design approach for an active BPF at frequency “2.45 GHz” and then its integration with a 3rd-order dipole antenna [1]. This design is followed by the creation of another efficient couple-resonant filter (CRF), in which each resonant grid is represented by a radiator. Moreover, a lossless two-port dipole antenna was introduced. Here, each of the poles is integrated with an inductor, to sure that the bipolar antennas can exploit as a resonator. The scores of the simulation-sketches and the computed results were convincing. Finally, the performance efficiency of the designed filter at the resonant frequency 2.45 GHz and for both “H-plane” and “E-plan” were summarized in Table 1. 


Keywords: Dipole antennas, Band-pass-filter, Ultra-wideband, Directivity, Radiation Patterns, Coupled Resonator


REFERENCES


  1. [1] A. K. Al-azzawi, (2021) “New Design Approach of a “2.4 GHz” Slotted Rectangular Patch Antenna with a Wideband Harmonic Suppression" Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering: DOI: 10.1007/s13369-021-05335-x.
  2. [2] K. Xu, F. Liu, L. Peng, W. S. Zhao, L. Ran, and G. Wang, (2017) “Multimode and Wideband Printed Loop Antenna Based on Degraded Split-Ring Resonators" IEEE Access 5: 15561–15570. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2729517.
  3. [3] A. I. Abunjaileh, I. C. Hunter, and A. H. Kemp, (2008) “A circuit-theoretic approach to the design of quadruple-mode broadband microstrip patch antennas" IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 56(4): 896–900. DOI: 10 . 1109/TMTT. 2008 .918137.
  4. [4] J. Shaker, M. Chaharmir, M. Cuhaci, and A. Ittipiboon, (2008) “Reflectarray research at the communications Research Centre Canada" IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 50(4): 31–52. DOI: 10.1109/MAP.2008.4653661.
  5. [5] C. X. Mao, S. Gao, Y. Wang, F. Qin, and Q. X. Chu, (2015) “Multimode Resonator-Fed Dual-Polarized Antenna Array With Enhanced Bandwidth and Selectivity" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 63(12): 5492–5499. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2015.2496099.
  6. [6] C. K. Lin and S. J. Chung, (2011) “A compact filtering microstrip antenna with quasi-elliptic broadside antenna gain response" IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 10: 381–384. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2011.2147750.
  7. [7] G. Zheng, A. A. Kishk, A. W. Glisson, and A. B. Yakovlev, (2004) “Simplified feed for modified printed Yagi antenna" Electronics Letters 40(8): 464–466. DOI:10.1049/el:20040348.
  8. [8] X. Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. M. Pan, andW. Duan, (2017) “Low-profile dual-band filtering patch antenna and its application to LTE MIMO system" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 65(1): 103–113. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2016.2631218.
  9. [9] F. C. Chen, J. F. Chen, Q. X. Chu, and M. J. Lancaster, (2017) “X-band waveguide filtering antenna array with nonuniform feed structure" IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 65(12): 4843–4850. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2017.2705697.
  10. [10] Z. H. Jiang and D. H. Werner, (2015) “A Compact, Wideband Circularly Polarized Co-designed Filtering Antenna and Its Application for Wearable Devices with Low SAR" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 63(9): 3808–3818. DOI: 10 . 1109/TAP. 2015.2452942.
  11. [11] B. Zhang and Q. Xue, (2018) “Filtering antenna with high selectivity using multiple coupling paths from source/load to resonators" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 66(8): 4320–4325. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2839968.
  12. [12] Q. S.Wu, X. Zhang, and L. Zhu, (2018) “Co-design of a wideband circularly polarized filtering patch antenna with three minima in axial ratio response" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 66(10): 5022–5030. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2856104.
  13. [13] Y. T. Liu, K. W. Leung, J. Ren, and Y. X. Sun, (2019) “Linearly and Circularly Polarized Filtering Dielectric Resonator Antennas" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 67(6): 3629–3640. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2019.2902670.
  14. [14] R. H. Mahmud and M. J. Lancaster, (2017) “High-gain and wide-bandwidth filtering planar antenna array-based solely on resonators" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 65(5): 2367–2375. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2017.2670443.
  15. [15] Y. Yusuf and X. Gong, (2011) “Compact low-loss integration of high-Q 3-D filters with highly efficient antennas" IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 59(4 PART 1): 857–865. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2010.2100407.
  16. [16] C. T. Chuang and S. J. Chung, (2011) “Synthesis and design of a new printed filtering antenna" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 59(3): 1036–1042. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2010.2103001.
  17. [17] A. E. T. Ali and Y. Wang. “Integrated filtering planar dipole antenna using edge coupled feed”. In: 2016 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference, LAPC 2016. 2017. DOI: 10.1109/LAPC.2016.7807494.
  18. [18] H. F. Pues and A. R. Van De Capelle, (1989) “An Impedance-Matching Technique for Increasing the Bandwidth of Microstrip Antennas" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 37(11): 1345–1354. DOI:10.1109/8.43553.
  19. [19] M. Troubat, S. Bila, M. Thévenot, D. Baillargeat, T. Monédière, S. Verdeyme, and B. Jecko. “Mutual synthesis of combined microwave circuits applied to the design of a filter-antenna subsystem”. In: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. 55. 6. 2007, 1182–1189. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2007.897719.
  20. [20] U. Naeem, S. Bila, S. Verdeyme, H. Chreim, R. Chantalat, M. Thévenot, T. Monédière, B. Palacin, and Y. Cailloce. “A simplified methodology for matched filter design with constraints - Filter-antenna subsystem for space application”. In: IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest. 2010, 1664–1667. DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.2010.5517921.
  21. [21] C. Tao, B. Ren, X. Guan, B. Zhao, C. Wang, and Z. Liu. “A Wideband Filtering Dipole Antenna Based on Short-Circuited Triple-Mode Resonator”. In: 2019 Cross Strait Quad-Regional Radio Science and Wireless Technology Conference, CSQRWC 2019 - Proceedings. 2019. DOI: 10.1109/CSQRWC.2019.8799336.
  22. [22] E. A. Ogbodo, M. G. Aly, A. E. T. Ali, Y. Wu, and Y. Wang, (2018) “Dual-band filtering antenna using dualmode patch resonators" Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 60(10): 2564–2569. DOI: 10.1002/mop.31396.
  23. [23] C. K. Lin and S. J. Chung, (2011) “A filtering microstrip antenna array" IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 59(11): 2856–2863.DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2011.2160986.
  24. [24] X. Chen, F. Zhao, L. Yan, and W. Zhang, (2013) “A compact filtering antenna with flat gain response within the passband" IEEE Antennas andWireless Propagation Letters 12: 857–860. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2013.2271972.
  25. [25] Y. Yusuf, H. Cheng, and X. Gong, (2011) “A seamless integration of 3-D vertical filters with highly efficient slot antennas" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 59(11): 4016–4022. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2011.2164186.
  26. [26] H. Cheng, Y. Yusuf, and X. Gong, (2011) “Vertically integrated three-pole filter/antennas for array applications" IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 10: 278–281. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2011.2135833.
  27. [27] Y. Tawk, J. Costantine, and C. G. Christodoulou, (2012) “A varactor-based reconfigurable filtenna" IEEE Antennas andWireless Propagation Letters 11: 716–719. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2012.2204850.
  28. [28] Z. Ma and G. A. Vandenbosch, (2014) “Wideband harmonic rejection filtenna for wireless power transfer" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 62(1):371–377. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2287009.
  29. [29] M. Barbuto, F. Trotta, F. Bilotti, and A. Toscano, (2015) “Horn antennas with integrated notch filters" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 63(2): 781–785. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2014.2378269.
  30. [30] A. L. C. Serrano, F. S. Correra, T. P. Vuong, and P. Ferrari, (2012) “Synthesis methodology applied to a tunable patch filter with independent frequency and bandwidth control" IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 60(3 PART 1): 484–493. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2011.2181533.
  31. [31] G. Macchiarella, (2002) “Accurate synthesis of inline prototype filters using cascaded triplet and quadruplet sections" IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 50(7): 1779–1783. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2002.800429.


Alaa K. Al-azzawi This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Department of Mechatronics Eng. Techniques, Technical Engineering College, Middle Technical University, Baghdad-Iraq


 

Received: March 2, 2021
Accepted: May 3, 2021
Publication Date: August 14, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.


Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.6180/jase.202204_25(2).0001  


ABSTRACT


In ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas used with the applications of wireless communication systems (WCS), the following five antenna parameters; radiation patterns, directivity, bandwidth, efficiency and antenna gain should be well optimized. A new design approach-based on coupling matrix theory of synthesis antenna has been presented. The most important parameters of this matrix are; external normalized quality factor, normalized un-loaded quality factor, radiation quality factor and coupling coefficients between the resonators. Accuracy in calculating these parameters will greatly facilitate control of the antenna bandwidth to be designed. The design approach included a BPF which was also expanded to become an antenna arrays-filter in the hope of increasing the gain and bandwidth of the antenna. Further, a matching unit is placed between the designed BPF and the antenna, to overcome the mismatching situation, and to achieve a high transmission power. The paper presented a new design approach for an active BPF at frequency “2.45 GHz” and then its integration with a 3rd-order dipole antenna [1]. This design is followed by the creation of another efficient couple-resonant filter (CRF), in which each resonant grid is represented by a radiator. Moreover, a lossless two-port dipole antenna was introduced. Here, each of the poles is integrated with an inductor, to sure that the bipolar antennas can exploit as a resonator. The scores of the simulation-sketches and the computed results were convincing. Finally, the performance efficiency of the designed filter at the resonant frequency 2.45 GHz and for both “H-plane” and “E-plan” were summarized in Table 1. 


Keywords: Dipole antennas, Band-pass-filter, Ultra-wideband, Directivity, Radiation Patterns, Coupled Resonator


REFERENCES


  1. [1] A. K. Al-azzawi, (2021) “New Design Approach of a “2.4 GHz” Slotted Rectangular Patch Antenna with a Wideband Harmonic Suppression" Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering: DOI: 10.1007/s13369-021-05335-x.
  2. [2] K. Xu, F. Liu, L. Peng, W. S. Zhao, L. Ran, and G. Wang, (2017) “Multimode and Wideband Printed Loop Antenna Based on Degraded Split-Ring Resonators" IEEE Access 5: 15561–15570. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2729517.
  3. [3] A. I. Abunjaileh, I. C. Hunter, and A. H. Kemp, (2008) “A circuit-theoretic approach to the design of quadruple-mode broadband microstrip patch antennas" IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 56(4): 896–900. DOI: 10 . 1109/TMTT. 2008 .918137.
  4. [4] J. Shaker, M. Chaharmir, M. Cuhaci, and A. Ittipiboon, (2008) “Reflectarray research at the communications Research Centre Canada" IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 50(4): 31–52. DOI: 10.1109/MAP.2008.4653661.
  5. [5] C. X. Mao, S. Gao, Y. Wang, F. Qin, and Q. X. Chu, (2015) “Multimode Resonator-Fed Dual-Polarized Antenna Array With Enhanced Bandwidth and Selectivity" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 63(12): 5492–5499. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2015.2496099.
  6. [6] C. K. Lin and S. J. Chung, (2011) “A compact filtering microstrip antenna with quasi-elliptic broadside antenna gain response" IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 10: 381–384. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2011.2147750.
  7. [7] G. Zheng, A. A. Kishk, A. W. Glisson, and A. B. Yakovlev, (2004) “Simplified feed for modified printed Yagi antenna" Electronics Letters 40(8): 464–466. DOI:10.1049/el:20040348.
  8. [8] X. Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. M. Pan, andW. Duan, (2017) “Low-profile dual-band filtering patch antenna and its application to LTE MIMO system" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 65(1): 103–113. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2016.2631218.
  9. [9] F. C. Chen, J. F. Chen, Q. X. Chu, and M. J. Lancaster, (2017) “X-band waveguide filtering antenna array with nonuniform feed structure" IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 65(12): 4843–4850. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2017.2705697.
  10. [10] Z. H. Jiang and D. H. Werner, (2015) “A Compact, Wideband Circularly Polarized Co-designed Filtering Antenna and Its Application for Wearable Devices with Low SAR" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 63(9): 3808–3818. DOI: 10 . 1109/TAP. 2015.2452942.
  11. [11] B. Zhang and Q. Xue, (2018) “Filtering antenna with high selectivity using multiple coupling paths from source/load to resonators" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 66(8): 4320–4325. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2839968.
  12. [12] Q. S.Wu, X. Zhang, and L. Zhu, (2018) “Co-design of a wideband circularly polarized filtering patch antenna with three minima in axial ratio response" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 66(10): 5022–5030. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2856104.
  13. [13] Y. T. Liu, K. W. Leung, J. Ren, and Y. X. Sun, (2019) “Linearly and Circularly Polarized Filtering Dielectric Resonator Antennas" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 67(6): 3629–3640. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2019.2902670.
  14. [14] R. H. Mahmud and M. J. Lancaster, (2017) “High-gain and wide-bandwidth filtering planar antenna array-based solely on resonators" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 65(5): 2367–2375. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2017.2670443.
  15. [15] Y. Yusuf and X. Gong, (2011) “Compact low-loss integration of high-Q 3-D filters with highly efficient antennas" IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 59(4 PART 1): 857–865. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2010.2100407.
  16. [16] C. T. Chuang and S. J. Chung, (2011) “Synthesis and design of a new printed filtering antenna" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 59(3): 1036–1042. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2010.2103001.
  17. [17] A. E. T. Ali and Y. Wang. “Integrated filtering planar dipole antenna using edge coupled feed”. In: 2016 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference, LAPC 2016. 2017. DOI: 10.1109/LAPC.2016.7807494.
  18. [18] H. F. Pues and A. R. Van De Capelle, (1989) “An Impedance-Matching Technique for Increasing the Bandwidth of Microstrip Antennas" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 37(11): 1345–1354. DOI:10.1109/8.43553.
  19. [19] M. Troubat, S. Bila, M. Thévenot, D. Baillargeat, T. Monédière, S. Verdeyme, and B. Jecko. “Mutual synthesis of combined microwave circuits applied to the design of a filter-antenna subsystem”. In: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. 55. 6. 2007, 1182–1189. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2007.897719.
  20. [20] U. Naeem, S. Bila, S. Verdeyme, H. Chreim, R. Chantalat, M. Thévenot, T. Monédière, B. Palacin, and Y. Cailloce. “A simplified methodology for matched filter design with constraints - Filter-antenna subsystem for space application”. In: IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest. 2010, 1664–1667. DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.2010.5517921.
  21. [21] C. Tao, B. Ren, X. Guan, B. Zhao, C. Wang, and Z. Liu. “A Wideband Filtering Dipole Antenna Based on Short-Circuited Triple-Mode Resonator”. In: 2019 Cross Strait Quad-Regional Radio Science and Wireless Technology Conference, CSQRWC 2019 - Proceedings. 2019. DOI: 10.1109/CSQRWC.2019.8799336.
  22. [22] E. A. Ogbodo, M. G. Aly, A. E. T. Ali, Y. Wu, and Y. Wang, (2018) “Dual-band filtering antenna using dualmode patch resonators" Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 60(10): 2564–2569. DOI: 10.1002/mop.31396.
  23. [23] C. K. Lin and S. J. Chung, (2011) “A filtering microstrip antenna array" IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 59(11): 2856–2863.DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2011.2160986.
  24. [24] X. Chen, F. Zhao, L. Yan, and W. Zhang, (2013) “A compact filtering antenna with flat gain response within the passband" IEEE Antennas andWireless Propagation Letters 12: 857–860. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2013.2271972.
  25. [25] Y. Yusuf, H. Cheng, and X. Gong, (2011) “A seamless integration of 3-D vertical filters with highly efficient slot antennas" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 59(11): 4016–4022. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2011.2164186.
  26. [26] H. Cheng, Y. Yusuf, and X. Gong, (2011) “Vertically integrated three-pole filter/antennas for array applications" IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 10: 278–281. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2011.2135833.
  27. [27] Y. Tawk, J. Costantine, and C. G. Christodoulou, (2012) “A varactor-based reconfigurable filtenna" IEEE Antennas andWireless Propagation Letters 11: 716–719. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2012.2204850.
  28. [28] Z. Ma and G. A. Vandenbosch, (2014) “Wideband harmonic rejection filtenna for wireless power transfer" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 62(1):371–377. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2287009.
  29. [29] M. Barbuto, F. Trotta, F. Bilotti, and A. Toscano, (2015) “Horn antennas with integrated notch filters" IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 63(2): 781–785. DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2014.2378269.
  30. [30] A. L. C. Serrano, F. S. Correra, T. P. Vuong, and P. Ferrari, (2012) “Synthesis methodology applied to a tunable patch filter with independent frequency and bandwidth control" IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 60(3 PART 1): 484–493. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2011.2181533.
  31. [31] G. Macchiarella, (2002) “Accurate synthesis of inline prototype filters using cascaded triplet and quadruplet sections" IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 50(7): 1779–1783. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2002.800429.


    
 

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