B.U.V. Prashanth This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1 and Mohammed Riyaz Ahmed2

1School of Electronics and Communication Engineering, REVA University, Bengaluru, India
2School of Multidisciplinary Studies, REVA University, Bengaluru, India


 

Received: July 19, 2020
Accepted: October 5, 2020
Publication Date: April 1, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.


Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.6180/jase.202104_24(2).0005  


ABSTRACT


In the class of cubic B20 transition metal silicides and germanides, the skyrmions and skyrmion lattices have so far been studied most extensively. Certain groups of materials in which skyrmions were identified include the Perovskites and Heusler systems. In this paper, the skyrmions chiral Néel characterization is illustrated via Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. Further utilizing magnetic-imaging and Hall-transport in a functionally viable multilayer sample, the topological-hall resistivity rises over a wide range of temperature and magnetic field with the isolated-skyrmion density is observed, verifying the effect of the skyrmion geometric-phase on electron transport. The observed bulk Néel skyrmions in an exchange coupled cobalt/palladium(Co/Pd) based multi-layers of metallic compounds at high temperatures up to a maximum of 220 K followed by a larger region characterized by spin from in-to out-of-plane. In fact, the skyrmions are extremely resilient to in-plane magnetic fields and can be stable in a zero magnetic field using appropriate cooling methods in field over a very wide ambient temperature of up to 5.5 K. At low temperatures (of < 13 K) the Néel skyrmions have been observed recently in distinct non-metallic compounds, in bulk crystals with broken inversion symmetry with a non-adiabatic footprint, multiband transport, interfacial interactions.


Keywords: Spintronics, Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, Magnetic Skyrmions, non-centrosymmetric, Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction


REFERENCES


  1. [1] Shawn D Pollard, Joseph A Garlow, Jiawei Yu, Zhen Wang, Yimei Zhu, and Hyunsoo Yang. Observation of stable Néel skyrmions in cobalt/palladium multilayers with Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. Nature communications, 8(1):1–8, 2017.
  2. [2] J Cui, Y Yao, X Shen, Y G Wang, and R C Yu. Artifacts in magnetic spirals retrieved by transport of intensity equation (TIE). Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 454:304–313, 2018.
  3. [3] Senfu Zhang, Junwei Zhang, Yan Wen, Eugene M Chudnovsky, and Xixiang Zhang. Determination of chirality and density control of Néel-type skyrmions with inplane magnetic field. Communications Physics, 1(1):1–7, 2018.
  4. [4] K Karube, J S White, N Reynolds, J L Gavilano, H Oike, A Kikkawa, F Kagawa, Y Tokunaga, Henrik M Rønnow, and Y Tokura. Robust metastable skyrmions and their triangular–square lattice structural transition in a high-temperature chiral magnet. Nature materials, 15(12):1237–1242, 2016.
  5. [5] Peter Milde, Denny Köhler, Joachim Seidel, L M Eng, Andreas Bauer, Alfonso Chacon, Jonas Kindervater, Sebastian Mühlbauer, Christian Pfleiderer, and Stefan Buhrandt. Unwinding of a skyrmion lattice by magnetic monopoles. Science, 340(6136):1076–1080, 2013.
  6. [6] Markus Hoffmann, Bernd Zimmermann, Gideon P Müller, Daniel Schürhoff, Nikolai S Kiselev, Christof Melcher, and Stefan Blügel. Antiskyrmions stabilized at interfaces by anisotropic Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. Nature communications, 8(1):1–9, 2017.
  7. [7] Kai Litzius, Ivan Lemesh, Benjamin Krüger, Pedram Bassirian, Lucas Caretta, Kornel Richter, Felix Büttner, Koji Sato, Oleg A Tretiakov, and Johannes Förster. Skyrmion Hall effect revealed by direct time-resolved X-ray microscopy. Nature Physics, 13(2):170–175, 2017.
  8. [8] Sabpreet Bhatti, Rachid Sbiaa, Atsufumi Hirohata, Hideo Ohno, Shunsuke Fukami, and S N Piramanayagam. Spintronics based random access memory: a review. Materials Today, 20(9):530–548, 2017.
  9. [9] Riccardo Tomasello, E Martinez, Roberto Zivieri, Luis Torres, Mario Carpentieri, and Giovanni Finocchio. A strategy for the design of skyrmion racetrack memories. Scientific reports, 4:6784, 2014.
  10. [10] P Lai, G P Zhao, H Tang, N Ran, S Q Wu, J Xia, X Zhang, and Y Zhou. An improved racetrack structure for transporting a skyrmion. Scientific reports, 7:45330, 2017.
  11. [11] Raí M Menezes, Jeroen Mulkers, Clécio C de Souza Silva, and Milorad V Miloševi´c. Deflection of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic skyrmions at heterochiral interfaces. Physical Review B, 99(10):104409, 2019.
  12. [12] Kyoung-Whan Kim, Kyoung-Woong Moon, Nico Kerber, Jonas Nothhelfer, and Karin Everschor-Sitte. Asymmetric skyrmion Hall effect in systems with a hybrid Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Physical Review B, 97(22):224427, 2018.
  13. [13] Riccardo Tomasello, E Martinez, Roberto Zivieri, Luis Torres, Mario Carpentieri, and Giovanni Finocchio. A strategy for the design of skyrmion racetrack memories. Scientific reports, 4:6784, 2014.
  14. [14] Ivan Lemesh, Felix Büttner, and Geoffrey S D Beach. Accurate model of the stripe domain phase of perpendicularly magnetized multilayers. Physical Review B, 95(17):174423, 2017.
  15. [15] Xichao Zhang, Jing Xia, Yan Zhou, Daowei Wang, Xiaoxi Liu, Weisheng Zhao, and Motohiko Ezawa. Control and manipulation of a magnetic skyrmionium in nanostructures. Physical Review B, 94(9):94420, 2016.
  16. [16] Ajaya K Nayak, Vivek Kumar, Tianping Ma, Peter Werner, Eckhard Pippel, Roshnee Sahoo, Franoise Damay, Ulrich K Rößler, Claudia Felser, and Stuart S P Parkin. Magnetic antiskyrmions above room temperature in tetragonal Heusler materials. Nature, 548(7669):561–566, 2017.
  17. [17] Ales Hrabec, Joao Sampaio, Mohamed Belmeguenai, Isabell Gross, Raphael Weil, Salim Mourad Chérif, A Stashkevich, Vincent Jacques, Andre Thiaville, and Stanislas Rohart. Current-induced skyrmion generation and dynamics in symmetric bilayers. Nature communications, 8(1):1–6, 2017.
  18. [18] Tianli Jin, Durgesh Kumar, Weiliang Gan, Mojtaba Ranjbar, Feilong Luo, Rachid Sbiaa, Xiaoxi Liu, Wen Siang Lew, and S N Piramanayagam. Nanoscale compositional modification in Co/Pd multilayers for controllable domain wall pinning in racetrack memory. physica status solidi (RRL)–Rapid Research Letters, 12(10):1800197, 2018.
  19. [19] Albert Fert, Nicolas Reyren, and Vincent Cros. Magnetic skyrmions: advances in physics and potential applications. Nature Reviews Materials, 2(7):1–15, 2017.
  20. [20] A Kurenkov, C Zhang, S DuttaGupta, S Fukami, and H Ohno. Device-size dependence of field-free spinorbit torque induced magnetization switching in antiferromagnet/ferromagnet structures. Applied Physics Letters, 110(9):92410, 2017.


Latest Articles

    
 

0.6
2019CiteScore
 
 
27th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Enter your name and email below to receive latest published articles in Journal of Applied Science and Engineering.