Mehmood AliThis email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1, Amtul Qayoom2, Zehra Ghulam2, Shahab Imran3, MNAM Yusoff3, M.A. Kalam4, Omar Mahmoud5, and A.S. El-Shafay6

1Department of Environmental Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Chemistry, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
3Centre of Energy Science, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
4University of Technology Sydney, Australia
5Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Future University in Egypt, New Cairo 11845, Egypt
6Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, 16273, Saudi Arabia


Received: April 8, 2022
Accepted: June 14, 2022
Publication Date: November 2, 2022

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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Due to the poor cold flow behaviour of biodiesel in winter, it tends to form solidifying gel in many cold regions across the world, making it challenging to use as an alternative fuel in diesel engines. This research investigation was conducted to investigate the comparative impact on cold flow parameters of biodiesel produced from Azadirachta indica (Neem oil) by blending with petroleum-based fuels and natural organic solvents. The B20 blends with kerosene showed significant improvement in CP, PP, and CFPP to -10 °C, -19 °C, and -20 °C, respectively. B20* blend enhanced the CP, PP and CFPP to 8 °C, 2 °C, and 6 °C respectively, while mixed kerosene/ diesel B20** blend improved CFPP, CP and PP by -4.5 °C, -7 °C and -8 °C respectively. Blend (B20T10) with natural turpentine oil improved CP, PP, and CFPP to 7 °C, 5 °C, and -2 °C, respectively. Diethyl ether and n-butanol did not show substantial improvement in biodiesel cold flow characteristics. The ester functional group in the biodiesel from ATR-FTIR spectral peaks was found at 1740.2 cm−1 denotes C=O, i.e., carbonyl group confirmation in the presence of ester linkage. The cost analysis of B20y** and B20T10 were found to be USD 0.747 and USD 0.782 per L, respectively in comparison to that of petroleum diesel, USD 0.770 per L. Neem biodiesel production showed a positive net energy balance of 14.28%. According to the current study, it is recommended to use blended mixed kerosene/diesel (B20**) and biodiesel blend with turpentine oil (B20T10) in diesel engines with suitable physico-chemical and cold flow properties in compliance with ASTM D6571standard.

Keywords: Biodiesel; Turpentine oil; Cold flow properties; Azadirachta indica; Kerosene; n- butanol


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