Journal of Applied Science and Engineering

Published by Tamkang University Press


Impact Factor



Chao-Ching Chang1,2, Jo-Hui Lin1 and Liao-Ping Cheng This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1,2

1Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taiwan 251, R.O.C.
2Energy and Opto-Electronic Materials Research Center, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taiwan 251, R.O.C.


Received: April 20, 2016
Accepted: May 5, 2016
Publication Date: December 1, 2016

Download Citation: ||  


Solvent dispersible nano-silica powder was prepared by a dual-step sol-gel process: first, SiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized through acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate in 2-propanol aqueous solution. Then, the particles were surface-modified by means of the capping agent trimethylethoxysilane (TMES). The formed product, termed TSiO2 nanopowder, was dispersible in many organic solvents, and the dispersibility was found to depend on the amounts of TMES bounded to the SiO2 nanoparticles. FTIR spectra of TSiO2 samples confirm SiOSi linkage being formed between TMES and SiO2 through the capping reaction. The sizes of TSiO2 dispersed in various solvents, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), fell largely over the range 220 nm for solvents with solubility parameters of 1629.6 MPa1/2. TEM imaging of the nanoparticles indicated that they were well separated with the largest identifiable size of ~10 nm, agreeing with the results obtained from DLS.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Dispersible, Sol-gel, Silica


  1. [1] Sanchez, C., Soler-Illia, G. J. de A. A., Ribot, F., Lalot, T., Mayer, C. R. and Cabuil, V., “Designed Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposites from Functional Nanobuilding Blocks,” Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 13, No. 10, pp. 30613083 (2001). doi: 10.1021/cm011 061e
  2. [2] Schmidt, H., “Nanoparticles by Chemical Synthesis, Processing to Materials and Innovative Applications,” Applied Organometallic Chemistry, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp. 331343 (2001). doi: 10.1002/aoc.169
  3. [3] Aegerter, M. A., Almeida,R., Soutar, A., Tadanaga, K. and Yang, H., “Coatings Made by Sol-Gel and Chemical Nanotechnology,” Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 203236 (2008). doi: 10.1007/s10971-008-1761-9
  4. [4] Wang, J. Y., Zhou, G. G., Xu, W. H., Liu, W. L., Cai, X. X., Liu, Q. Z., Wang, X. Q. and Wu, Y. Z., “FacileSynthesis of a Superhydrophobic Surface with Modified Hollow Silica Nanoparticles,” RSC Advances, Vol. 4, No. 93, pp. 5160351608 (2014). doi: 10.1039/C4RA 09218J
  5. [5] Jeevajothi, K., Subasri, R. and Soma Raju, K. R. C., “Transparent, Non-fluorinated, Hydrophobic Silica Coatings with Improved Mechanical Properties,” Ceramics International, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 21112116 (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2012.07.019
  6. [6] Girdthep, S., Komrapit, N., Molloy, R., Lumyong, S., Punyodom, W. and Worajittiphon, P., “Effect of Plate-like Particles on Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid)/ Poly(Butylene Adipate-co-terephthalate) Blend: a Comparative Study between Modified Montmorillonite and Graphene Nanoplatelets,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 119, No. 23, pp. 115123 (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2015.10.005
  7. [7] Chang, C. C., Huang, F. H., Lin, Z. M. and Cheng, L. P., “Thermal Analyses of Dye Disperse Red 1 Grafted onto Silica Nanoparticles,” Journal of Coatings Technology and Research, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 731738 (2015). doi: 10.1007/s11998-015-9670-7
  8. [8] Gao, L. P., Ding, G. J., Li, C. L. and Wang, Y. C., “Photochromic and Electrochromic Performances of New Types of Donor/Acceptor Systems Based on Crosslinked Polyviologen Film and Electron Donors,” Applied Surface Science, Vol. 257, No. 7, pp. 30393046 (2011). doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.10.113
  9. [9] Yeh, J. M., Weng, C. J., Liao, W. J. and Mau, Y. W., “Anticorrosively Enhanced PMMASiO2 Hybrid Coatings Prepared from the Sol-Gel Approach with MSMA as the Coupling Agent,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 201, No. 34, pp. 17881795 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2006.03.011
  10. [10] Wu, L. Y. L., Boon, L., Chen, Z. and Zeng, X. T., “Adhesion Enhancement of Sol-Gel Coating on Polycarbonate by Heated Impregnation Treatment,” Thin Solid Films, Vol. 517, No. 10, pp. 48504856 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2008.11.101
  11. [11] Klajn, R., “Spiropyran-based Dynamic Materials,” Chemical Society Reviews., Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 148 184 (2014). doi: 10.1039/c3cs60181a
  12. [12] Souza, F. L., Bueno, P. R., Longo, E. and Leite, E. R., “Sol-gel Nonhydrolytic Synthesis of a Hybrid Organic Inorganic Electrolyte for Application in Lithium-ion Devices,” Solid State Ionics, Vol. 166, No. 12, pp. 8388 (2000). doi: 10.1016/j.ssi.2003.10.009
  13. [13] Otsuka, T. and Chujo, Y., “Synthesis of Transparent Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) (PVDF)/Zirconium Oxide Hybrids without Crystallization of PVDF Chains,” Polymer, Vol. 50, No. 14, pp. 31743181 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.polymer.2009.05.018
  14. [14] Chang, C. C., Lin, Z. M., Huang, S. H. and Cheng, L. P., “Preparation of Highly Transparent 13F-Modified Nano-Silica/Polymer Hydrophobic Hard Coatings on Plastic Substrates,” Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 387394 (2015). doi: 10.6180/jase.2015.18.4.10
  15. [15] Chang, C. C., Hsieh, C. Y., Huang, F. H. and Cheng, L. P., “Preparation of Zirconia Loaded Poly(Acrylate) Anti-static Hard Coatings on PMMASubstrates,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 132, No. 33, pp. 4241142416 (2015). doi: 10.1002/app.42411
  16. [16] Chang, C. C., Oyang, T. Y., Chen, Y. C., Hwang, F. H. and Cheng, L. P., “Preparation of Hydrophobic Nanosilica Filled Polyacrylate Hard Coatings on Plastic Substrates,” Journal of Coatings Technology and Research, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 381386 (2014). doi: 10. 1007/s11998-013-9540-0
  17. [17] Ju, X., Huang, P., Xu, N. and Shi, J., “Studies on the Preparation of Mesoporous Titania Membrane by the Reversed Micelle Method,” Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 202, No. 12, pp. 63–71 (2002). doi: 10. 1016/S0376-7388(01)00722-0
  18. [18] Yao, L., Xu, G., Dou, W. and Bai, Y., “The Control of Size and Morphology of Nanosized Silica in Triton X-100 Based Reverse Micelle,” Colloids and Surfaces A:Physicochemicaland Engineering Aspects,Vol.316, No.13,pp.814(2008).doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2007. 08.016
  19. [19] Posthumus, W., Magusin, P. C. M. M., Brokken-Zijp, J. C. M., Tinnemans, A. H. A. and van der Linde, R., “Surface Modification of Oxidic Nanoparticles Using 3-Methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 269, No. 1, pp. 109116 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2003.07.008
  20. [20] Eras, J., Méndez, J. J., Balcells, M. and Canela, R., “Chlorotrimethylsilane: a Suitable Reagent for the Synthesis of Chlorohydrin Esters,” Journal of Organic Chemistry, Vol. 67, No. 24, pp. 86318634 (2002). doi: 10.1021/jo026020w
  21. [21] Delak, K. M. and Sahai, N., “Amine-Catalyzed Biomimetic Hydrolysis and Condensation of Organosilicate,” Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 17, No. 16, pp. 32213227 (2005). doi: 10.1021/cm048355v
  22. [22] Rao, A. V. and Kulkarni, M. M., “Hydrophobic Properties of TMOS/TMES-Based Silica Aerogels,” Materials Research Bulletin, Vol. 37, No. 9, pp. 1667 1677 (2002). doi: 10.1016/S0025-5408(02)00795-X
  23. [23] Huang, F. H., Chang, C. C., Oyang, T. Y., Chen, C. C. and Cheng, L. P., “Preparation of Almost DispersantFree Colloidal Silica with Superb Dispersablility in Organic Solvents and Monomers,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, Vol. 13, No. 9, pp. 38853897 (2011). doi: 10.1007/s11051-011-0342-y
  24. [24] Hajji, P., David, L., Gerard, J. F., Pascault, J. P. and Vigier, G., “Synthesis, Structure and Morphology of PolymerSilica Hybrid Nanocomposites Based on Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate,” Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics, Vol. 37, No. 22, pp. 31723187 (1999). doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0488 (19991115)37:22<3172::AID-POLB2>3.0.CO;2-R
  25. [25] Yu, Y. Y., Chen, C. Y. and Chen, W. C., “Synthesis and Characterization of OrganicInorganic Hybrid Thin Films from Poly(Acrylic) and Monodispersed Colloidal Silica,” Polymer, Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 593 601 (2003). doi: 10.1016/S0032-3861(02)00824-8
  26. [26] Hegde, N. D., Hirashima, H. and Rao, A. V., “Two Step Sol-Gel Processing of TEOS Based Hydrophobic Silica Aerogels Using Trimethylethoxysilane as a Co-precursor,” Journal of Porous Materials, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 165171 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s10934006-9021-2