Journal of Applied Science and Engineering

Published by Tamkang University Press


Impact Factor



Chiu-Ching Tuan1 and Yi-Chao Wu This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1

1Graduate Institute of Computer and Communication Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan 106, R.O.C.


Received: August 23, 2010
Accepted: March 16, 2011
Publication Date: March 1, 2012

Download Citation: ||  


Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) consist of a set of mobile nodes without deploying base stations. Since mobile nodes are energy limited, designing an energy-efficient routing protocol is an important issue in MANETs. Among existing routing protocols, grid routing protocols are usually used for saving energy. In grid routing protocols, only few nodes act as grid headers to maintain connectivity of network and other nodes can be tuned into idle mode to save energy. In traditional grid header election, such as GRID and LB2R, a robust grid header is selected without considering energy consumption. All nodes need to broadcast elected packets to compete as a grid header once the residual energy of current grid header is insufficient. Hence, nodes consume the redundant energy without transmitting data. To solve this problem, we propose a grid header election by predetermining (GHEP) in MANETs. In GHEP, a node will be selected as a candidate node in advance. Whenever the residual energy of grid header is insufficient, the candidate node becomes as the new grid header immediately without sending extra controlled packets for election. Simulation results showed that our proposed GHEP outperformed GRID and LB2R in different number and moving speed of nodes. Moreover, GHEP could also save more energy than GRID and LB2R.

Keywords: Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Mobile Node, Grid Routing Protocol, Grid Header Election, Candidate Node


  1. [1] Crow, B. P., Widjaja I., Kim L. G. and Sakai P. T., “IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 35, pp. 116126 (1997).
  2. [2] Ververidis, C. N. and Polyzos, G. C., “Service Discovery for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey of Issues and Techniques,” IET Communications, Vol. 10, pp. 3045 (2008).
  3. [3] Junhai, L., Danxia, Y., Liu, X. and Mingyu, F., “A Survey of Multicast Routing Protocols for Mobile AdHoc Networks,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, Vol. 11, pp. 7891 (2009).
  4. [4] Lima, M., Dos, S. A. and Pujolle, G., “ASurvey of Survivability in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, Vol. 11, pp. 6677 (2009).
  5. [5] Younis, M. and Ozer, S. Z., “Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks: Technologies and Challenges,” Wireless Communication Mobile Computing, Vol. 6, pp. 889892 (2006).
  6. [6] Pelusi, L., Passarella, A. and Conti, M., “Opportunistic Networking: Data Forwarding in Disconnected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 44, pp. 134141 (2006).
  7. [7] Ramanathan, R. and Redi, J., “A Brief Overview of Ad Hoc Networks: Challenges and Directions,” IEEE Communication Magazine, Vol. 40, pp. 2022 (2002).
  8. [8] Abusalah, L., Khokhar, A. and Guizani, M., “A Survey of Secure Mobile Ad Hoc Routing Protocols,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, Vol. 10, pp. 7893 (2008).
  9. [9] Li, F. and Wang, Y., “Routing in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey,” IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, Vol. 2, pp. 1222 (2007).
  10. [10] Liang, O., Sekercioglu, Y. A. and Mani, N., “A Survey of Multipoint Relay Based Broadcast Schemes in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, Vol. 8, pp. 3046 (2006).
  11. [11] Chen, L. and Heinzelman, W. B., “A Survey of Routing Protocols that Support QoS in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Network, Vol. 21, pp. 3038 (2007).
  12. [12] Perkins, C. E. and Royer, E. M., “Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector Routing,” 1999 Mobile Computing Systems and Applications Conference, LA, USA, IEEE, p. 90100 (1999).
  13. [13] Johnson, D. B. and Maltz, D. A., Dynamic Source Routing Protocol in Ad Hoc Networks, In: Imielinski T., Korth H. editor. Mobile Computing, 1st ed. London: Sprinker, p. 153181 (1996).
  14. [14] Li, J., Cordes, D. and Zhang, J., “Power-Aware Routing Protocols in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications, Vol. 12, pp. 6981 (2005).
  15. [15] Zhang, B. and Mouftah, H. T., “Energy-Aware OnDemand Routing Protocols for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Wireless Networks, Vol. 12, pp. 481494 (2006).
  16. [16] Panichpapiboon, S., Ferrari, G. and Tonguz, O. K., “Optimal Transmit Power in Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol. 5, pp. 14321447 (2006).
  17. [17] Vassileva, N. and Barcelo-Arroyo, F., “A Survey of Routing Protocols for Energy Constrained Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” 2008 Future Generation Communication and Networking Conference, Jeju-Island, Korea, IEEE, pp. 522-527 (2008).
  18. [18] Liao, W.-H., Tseng, Y.-C. and Sheu, J.-P., “GRID: A Fully Location-Aware Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Telecommunication Systems, Vol. 18, pp. 3760 (2001).
  19. [19] Tseng, Y. C. and Hsieh, T.-Y., “Fully Energy-Aware and Location-Aware Protocols for Wireless Multihop Ad Hoc Networks,” 2002 Computer Communications and Networks Conference, Florida, USA, IEEE, pp. 608613 (2002).
  20. [20] Tseng, Y.-C. and Hsieh, T.-Y., “An Architecture for Power-Saving Communications in a Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Network Based on Location Information,” Microprocessors and Microsystems, Vol. 28, pp. 457 465 (2004).
  21. [21] Wu, Y.-C. and Tuan, C.-C., “Energy Saving CacheBased Routing Protocol in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” 2007 Wireless, Mobile and Sensor Networks Conference, Shanghai, China, IET, pp. 466469 (2007).
  22. [22] Wu, Y.-C. and Tuan, C.-C., “Power Saving Routing Protocol with Power Sieving in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” 2009 Networks Security, Wireless Communications and Trusted Computing Conference, Wuhan, China, IEEE, pp. 349352 (2009).
  23. [23] Wu, Y.-C. and Tuan, C.-C., “Triangular Energy Saving Routing Protocol with Energy Sieving in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” 2009 Mobile Data Management Systems, Service and Middleware Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, IEEE, pp. 474477 (2009).
  24. [24] Wu, Z., Song, H., Jiang, S. and Xu, X., “Energy-Aware Grid Multipath Routing Protocol in MANET,” 2007 Asia Modelling and Simulation Conference, Phuket, IEEE, pp. 3641 (2007).
  25. [25] Wu, Z., Song, H., Jiang, S. and Xu, X., “A Grid-Based Stable Routing Algorithm in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” 2007 Modelling and Simulation Conference, Phuket, Thailand, IEEE, pp. 181186 (2007).
  26. [26] Wu, Z., Dong, X. and Cui, L., “A Grid-Based Energy Aware Node-Disjoint Multipath Routing Algorithm for MANETs,” 2007 Natural Computation Conference, Haikou China, IEEE, pp. 244248 (2007).
  27. [27] Liu, H.-I. and Yen, P.-C., “LB2R: A Load Balanced and Location Based Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks,” 2004 Vehicular Technology Conference, LA, USA, IEEE, pp. 39703974 (2004).
  28. [28] Stojmenovic, I. and Lin, X., “Power Aware Localized Routing in Wireless Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distribution Systems, Vol. 12, pp. 1122 1133 (2001).
  29. [29] Gomez, J., “Conserving Transmission Power in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” 2001 Network Protocols Conference, California, USA, IEEE, pp. 2434 (2001).



60th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Enter your name and email below to receive latest published articles in Journal of Applied Science and Engineering.