Journal of Applied Science and Engineering

Published by Tamkang University Press


Impact Factor



Muhammad Tayyab Naqash This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1

1Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic University in Madinah, Saudi Arabia


Received: April 1, 2021
Accepted: April 25, 2021
Publication Date: June 23, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||  


Modern seismic code relies on the capacity design approach to assure ductility. When the capacity design dictates, the frames are dimensioned for strength. Inadvertently, stiffness often presents itself as a dominating parameter in MRFs (Moment Resisting Frames), especially with strict drift limits. In this research, rigid steel moment-resisting frames have been designed as per Eurocodes provisions. Initially, the results obtained from modal analysis and nonlinear analyses are concisely elaborated in such a way to highlight the complexities of Eurocode 8 design procedures. Various parameters are assessed to evaluate their influences on high and medium ductility classes. A simplified predictive method is proposed through tables, graphs, and flowcharts. Several combinations are suggested where for an assumed ductility class, a specific drift limit is defined. The elastic overstrength, redundancy factor, and reserve overstrength factors are indicated with the confidence to allow an un-iterated design approach for steel moment-resisting frames designed with a pre-determined strategy for failure mechanisms by improving the design approach of Eurocode 8.

Keywords: Damageability, Ductility, Drift limits, Eurocodes, Moment resisting frames, Seismic design, Capacity design


  1. [1] M. T. Naqash, G. De Matteis, and A. De Luca. “Effects of Capacity Design Rules on Seismic Performance of Steel Moment Resisting Frames”. In: 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Lisbon, 2012, 1– 10.
  2. [2] M. T. Naqash, (2012) “Optimum design of steel moment resisting frames":
  3. [3] M. T. Naqash, A. Formisano, and G. De Matteis. “Aluminium framing members in facades”. In: Key Engineering Materials. 710. 2016, 327 332. DOI: 10.4028/
  4. [4] European Commitee for Standardization, (2004) “Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance - Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings" European Committee for Standardization 1(English): 231.
  5. [5] Minimum design loads and associated criteria for buildings and other structures. 2017, 1–889. DOI: 10.1061/ 9780784414248.
  6. [6] E. I. Katsanos, A. G. Sextos, and A. S. Elnashai, (2014) “Prediction of inelastic response periods of buildings based on intensity measures and analytical model parameters" Engineering Structures 71: 161–177. DOI: 10.1016/j. engstruct.2014.04.007.
  7. [7] M. T. Naqash. Study on the fundamental period of vibration of steel moment resisting frames. Tech. rep. 01. 2014, 2319–5347.
  8. [8] A. Gupta and H. Krawinkler, (2000) “Estimation of seismic drift demands for frame structures" Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 29(9): 1287– 1305. DOI: 10.1002/1096- 9845(200009)29:9<1287:: AID-EQE971>3.0.CO;2-B.
  9. [9] S.-Y. Yun, R. O. Hamburger, C. A. Cornell, and D. A. Foutch, (2002) “Seismic Performance Evaluation for Steel Moment Frames" Journal of Structural Engineering 128(4): 534–545. DOI: 10.1061/(asce)0733-9445(2002) 128:4(534).
  10. [10] D. A. Foutch and S. Y. Yun, (2002) “Modeling of steel moment frames for seismic loads" Journal of Constructional Steel Research 58(5-8): 529–564. DOI: 10.1016/ S0143-974X(01)00078-5.
  11. [11] FEMA 356, (2000) “FEMA 356 Prestandard" US Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2000. (November): 2–15.
  12. [12] S. Freeman. Prediction of response of concrete buildings to severe earthquake motion, Publication SP-55, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, MI, 589-605. Tech. rep. 1978.
  13. [13] P. Fajfar and M. Fischinger, (1988) “N2- A Method For Non-linear Seismic Analysis of Regular Buildings" Ninth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering: 111–116.
  14. [14] P. Fajfar, (2000) “A Nonlinear Analysis Method for Performance-Based Seismic Design" Earthquake Spectra 16(3): 573–592. DOI: 10.1193/1.1586128.
  15. [15] P. Fajfar, V. Kilar, D. Marusic, I. Perus, and G. Magliulo. “The extension of the N2 method to asymmetric buildings”. In: Proceedings of the 4th European workshop on the seismic behaviour of irregular and complex structures. 41. 2005, 291–308.
  16. [16] H. Krawinkler and G. D. Seneviratna, (1998) “Pros and cons of a pushover analysis of seismic performance evaluation" Engineering Structures 20(4-6): 452–464. DOI: 10.1016/S0141-0296(97)00092-8.
  17. [17] W. K. Tso and A. S. Moghadam, (1998) “Pushover procedure for seismic analysis of buildings" Progress in Structural Engineering and Materials 1(3): 337–344. DOI: 10.1002/pse.2260010317.
  18. [18] A. M. Mwafy and A. S. Elnashai, (2001) “Static pushover versus dynamic collapse analysis of RC buildings" Engineering Structures 23(5): 407–424. DOI: 10. 1016/S0141-0296(00)00068-7.
  19. [19] F. M. Mazzolani and V. Piluso, (1997) “Plastic design of seismic resistant steel frames" Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 26(2): 167–191. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1096- 9845(199702)26:2<167::AIDEQE630> 3.0.CO;2-2.
  20. [20] V. Mohsenian and A. Mortezaei, (2019) “New proposed drift limit states for box-type structural systems considering local and global damage indices" Advances in Structural Engineering 22(15): 3352–3366. DOI: 10. 1177/1369433219863299.
  21. [21] A. L. Vidot-Vega and M. J. Kowalsky, (2013) “Drift, strain limits and ductility demands for RC moment frames designed with displacement-based and force-based design methods" Engineering Structures 51: 128–140. DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2013.01.004.
  22. [22] A. Sivandi-Pour, M. Gerami, and D. Khodayarnezhad, (2014) “Equivalent modal damping ratios for non-classically damped hybrid steel concrete buildings with transitional storey" Structural Engineering and Mechanics 50(3): 383–401. DOI: 10.12989/sem.2014. 50.3.383.
  23. [23] M. Gerami, Y. Sharbati, and A. Sivandi-Pour, (2013) “Nonlinear seismic vulnerability evaluation of irregular steel buildings with cumulative damage indices" International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering 5(1): DOI: 10.1186/2008-6695-5-9.
  24. [24] C. Aiello, N. Caterino, G. Maddaloni, A. Bonati, A. Franco, and A. Occhiuzzi, (2018) “Experimental and numerical investigation of cyclic response of a glass curtain wall for seismic performance assessment" Construction and Building Materials 187: 596–609. DOI: 10. 1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.07.237.
  25. [25] M. T. Naqash, (2019) “Design and Fabrication of Aluminum Cladding and Curtain Wall of a Sports Club" Open Journal of Civil Engineering 09(01): 1–17. DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2019.91001.
  26. [26] M. Umar, S. A. A. Shah, K. Shahzada, T. Naqash, and W. Ali, (2020) “Assessment of seismic capacity for reinforced concrete frames with perforated unreinforced brick masonry infill wall" Civil Engineering Journal (Iran) 6(12): 2397–2415. DOI: 10.28991/cej-2020-03091625.
  27. [27] EN 1993-1-1/AC. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings (corrigendum). 2009.
  28. [28] Computers and Structures INC. Structural Software for Analysis and Design | SAP2000. 2018.
  29. [29] M. T. Naqash, G. D. Matteis, and A. D. Luca, (2012) “Seismic Design of Steel Moment Resisting Frames- European versus American Practice" NED University Journal of Research, Thematic issue on earthquake (November 2011):
  30. [30] S. A. A. Shah, M. A. A. Gul, T. Naqash, Z. Khan, and M. Rizwan, (2021) “Effects of fiber reinforcements on the strength of shotcrete" Civil Engineering and Architecture 9(1): 176–183. DOI: 10.13189/cea.2021. 090115.
  31. [31] M. T. Naqash, Q. U. Farooq, and O. Harireche, (2019) “Seismic Evaluation of Steel Moment Resisting Frames (MRFs)—Supported by Loose Granular Soil" Open Journal of Earthquake Research 08(02): 37–51. DOI: 10. 4236/ojer.2019.82003.
  32. [32] A. Y. Elghazouli, (2010) “Assessment of European seismic design procedures for steel framed structures" Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 8(1): 65–89. DOI: 10.1007/s10518-009-9125-6.
  33. [33] R. N. Patton, (1985) “Analysis and design methods" Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering: