Journal of Applied Science and Engineering

Published by Tamkang University Press


Impact Factor



Zhong-Bo Hu This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1,2 and Yan-Xin Yang2

1China Three Gorges Corporation, Beijing 100038, P.R. China
2School of Civil Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province 610031, P.R. China


Received: September 25, 2017
Accepted: January 29, 2018
Publication Date: June 1, 2018

Download Citation: ||  


A series of in-situ tests on lateral monotonic loading of two offshore large-diameter steel pipe piles in sand are performed, and the lateral load versus displacement relationship, bending moment and deflection of pile shaft and lateral soil pressures are measured. The results show that the maximum bending moment approximately is 1D m (one time diameter of pile) below the ground level, the zero pile shaft deflection point is approximately 7 m below the ground level. Based upon the measured results, the initial modulus and the ultimate resistance of p-y curves in silty sand are studied, and a modified hyperbolic model considering the influence of pile diameter and embedded depth is employed to calculate the sand p-y curves, the comparisons of p-y curves at the depth 2D (two times the diameter of pile) between API code and other refinement models are presented. The results show that the initial modulus is overestimated and the ultimate resistance is underestimated by the API code, which lead to small lateral displacement estimation when small pile shaft deflection occurs, and the lateral displacement estimation is conservative when large pile shaft deflection occurs. Furthermore, the initial modulus and the ultimate resistance are underestimated by the hyperbolic model, the modified hyperbolic model offers a better prediction for silty sand deposits.

Keywords: Offshore Wind, Large-diameter Steel Pipe Piles, p-y Curves, In-situ Test, Silty Sand


  1. [1] Dai, Z. H. and Chen, L. J., “Two Numerical Solutions of Laterally Loaded Piles Installed in Multi-layered Soils by m Method,” Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 5, pp. 690696 (2007). doi: 10.3321/j.issn:1000-4548.2007.05.010
  2. [2] American Petroleum Institute, Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms-working Stress Design, Washington, D.C: American Petroleum Institute Publishing Services (2010).
  3. [3] Li, W. C., Yang, M. and Zhu B. T., “Case Study of p-y Model for Short Rigid Pile in Sand,” Rock and Soil Mechanics, Vol. 36, No. 10, pp. 29892995 (2015). doi: 10.16285/j.rsm.2015.10.033
  4. [4] Zhu, B.,Xiong, G.,Liu,J.C.,etal,“Centrifuge Modelling of a Large-Diameter Single Pile under Lateral Loads in Sand,” Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 35, No. 10, pp. 18071815 (2013).
  5. [5] Choo, Y.W.and Kim,D., “Experimental Development of the p-y Relationship for Large-diameter Offshore Monopiles in Sands: Centrifuge Tests,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 142, No. 1, pp. 4015058 (2015). doi: 10.1061/(asce)gt.19435606.0001373
  6. [6] Li,W. C., Zhu, B.T. and Yang, M., “StaticResponse of Monopile to Lateral Load in Overconsolidated Dense Sand,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 143, No. 7, pp. 4017026 (2017). doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001698
  7. [7] Sun, X. and Huang, W. P., “Study on Measured p-y Curves of Large DiameterPile Foundation of Offshore Wind Power,” Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 216221 (2016). doi: 10.3969/j.issn.02540096.2016.01.034
  8. [8] Li, Y. and Byrne, P. M., “Lateral Pile Response to Monotonic Pile Head Loading,” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 955970 (1992). doi: 10. 1139/t92-106
  9. [9] Georgiadis, M., Anagnostopoulos, C. and Saflekou, S., “Centrifugal Testing of Laterally Loaded Piles in Sand,” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 208216 (1992). doi: 10.1139/t92-024
  10. [10] Kim, B. T., Kim, N. K., Lee, W. J., et al., “Experimental Load-transfer Curves of Laterally Loaded Piles in Nak-Dong River Sand,” Journal of Geotechnical & Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 4, pp. 416425 (2004). doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2004) 130:4(416)
  11. [11] Klinkvort, R. T. and Hededal, O., “Effect of Load Eccentricity and Stress Level on Monopile Support for Offshore Wind Turbines,” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 51, No. 9, pp. 966974 (2014). doi: 10.1139/ cgj-2013-0475
  12. [12] Sorensen, S. P. H., Ibsen, L. B. and Augustesen, A. H., “Effects of Diameter on Initial Stiffness of p-y Curves for Large-diameter Piles in Sand,” The European Conference on Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering, Norway (2010).
  13. [13] Kallehave, D., Thilsted, C. L. B. and Liingaard, M. A., “Modification of the API p-y Formulation of Initial Stiffness of Sand,” 7th International Conference: Offshore Site Investigation and Geotechnics: Integrated Technologies-present and Future, London (2012).
  14. [14] Broms, B., “The Lateral Resistance of Piles in Cohesion less Soils,”Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, Vol. 90, No. 3, pp. 123156 (1964).
  15. [15] Barton,Y.O., Laterally Loaded Model Piles in Sand: Centrifuge Tests and Finite Element Analysis, Ph. D. Desertation, University of Cambridge,London,U.K.(1982).
  16. [16] Zhu, B., Zhu, R. Y., Luo, J., et al., “Model Tests on Characteristics of Ocean and Offshore Elevated Piles with Large Lateral Deflection,” Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 521 530 (2010).
  17. [17] Guo, W. D. and Zhu, B. T., “Laterally Loaded Fixed headed Piles in Sand,” 9th Australia New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics, Auckland, New Zealand (2004).
  18. [18] Kim, D., Choo, Y. W. and Kwak, K., “Comparison of Lateral Behavior of Rock-socketed Large-diameter Offshore Monopiles in Sands with Different Relative Densities,” International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 156160 (2015). doi: 10.17736/ijope.2015.hb14